Inan academic institution, quality can be measured with the help of varieddimensions. This includes classroom practice, building and its maintenance,basic amenities and many other tangible and non-tangible aspects. In the study,focus has been laid down to the Electronic Human Resource Management (E-HRM)and its usage level in academic institutions by different categories ofusers. According to Nankervis (1989), the management concept – getting theright person in the right place at the right time, is an appropriate qualityprinciple for academic institutions. This principle could be made applicable,provided the information pertaining to the employees is available and stored inan orderly manner. Cohen (1989a; 1989b; 1989c) revealed that without relativelyaccurate data about people, few effective human resource decisions can be made.
Similarly, without the facility to report and represent the data in appropriateformats, the information hungry processes of audit (quality assessment) could notbe satisfied easily. Thus, in order to improve the working of an organization, E-HRMplays an important role as it provides operational control over process as wellas support the process and practices. It can be said that E-HRM is nothing, butthe computer software, which helps in automation of organizational activities. Accordingto Nenwan and Raj (2013) e–HRM (Electronic Human ResourceManagement) is advance business solution which provides a complete on-line support in the management of allprocesses, activities, data and information required to manage human resourcesin a modern company. Accordingto Broderick and Boudreau (1992) E-HRM is the combination of databases, computerapplications, and hardware and software necessary to collect/record, store, manage,deliver, present, and manipulate data for human resources. The goalof E-HRM is to merge the different functions of an organization, this includes dataentry, data tracking, and data information needs of the human resources,payroll, management, and accounting functions within a business.
As E-HRM forms integrationbetween Human Resource Management (HRM) and Information Technology (IT). Itmerges HRM as a discipline and in particular basic HR activities and processeswith the IT (DeSanctis, 1986). Asper Kovach et al. (1999), E-HRM is a systematic procedure for collecting,storing, maintaining, retrieving, and validating data needed by organizationabout its human resources, personnel activities, and organization unit characteristics.Going beyond the other dimensions of E-HRM, Hendrickson (2003) proposed that E-HRM is not limited tothe computer hardware and software applications that comprise the technicalpart of the system, but it also includes the people, policies, procedures, anddata required to manage the HR function. E-HRM- Functions and BenefitsIngeneral, as the name suggests, focuses on the HR aspects in an organization.
E-HRMcan be a functional database that can be accessed onsite or remotely, which isdesigned to hold data of employees and to support HR activities such as recruitment,selection, performance management, training and development. The key functionof E-HRM is that on a click, it provides information about anything the organizationneeds to track and analyze about existing employees, former employees, and thefuture applicants. According to Laudon and Laudon (2002), E-HRM is used atthree levels of organization as it offer a comprehensive set of functionality, suchas training, career path management and compensation analysis. Data held in an E-HRMis important, because people are considered as an organization’s greatestassets and the ability to flexibly use these assets can be the key tocompetitive advantage in today’s global knowledge economy (Stewart and Tansley,2002). Beside this, a flexible E-HRM could be really beneficial for HR staff,as it can enable the employees to update their general information like contactnumber, address etc. in this way, HR staff can engage themselves into somefruitful activities.
Sadriand Chatterjee (2003) found that E-HRM facilitates an organization bystrengthening corporate character. Beckers and Bsat (2002) pointed out at leastfive reasons why companies should use E-HRM, these were – E-HRM can increase competitiveness by improving HRoperations; produce a greater number and variety of HR-related reports; shiftthe focus of HR from the processing of transactions to strategic HRM; makeemployees part of E-HRM; and reengineer the entire HR function of companies. Accordingto Burack (1985), the establishment of an E-HRM looks towards the integrationand support for three essential corporate processes – strategic planning;operational planning; and human resource planning (including career planning). Sadriand Chatterjee (2003) stated that with E-HRM, faster decision making can becarried out on the development, planning, and administration of HR.
Inaddition, they noted that E-HRM can strengthen an organization’s character. Cohen(1989a, 1989b, 1989c) explored essential functions of an E-HRM as – selectionand placement; performance management; training and education; and career planningand development. Thee-HRM territory focuses on all integration mechanisms and all HRM contentshared via IT that aim to make HRM processes distinctive and consistent, moreefficient, high in quality and which create long-term opportunities within and acrossorganizations for targeted users. (Bondarouk and Brewster, 2016).
The use of E-HRM results into anumber of benefits that further results into overall improvement in theorganizational functioning. Slotnick etal. (1986) listed attributes of E-HRM as – efficient use of resources;speed; compatibility; updateability; accessibility; data integrity; and privacyand security. Lederer (1984)proposed four broad criteria for an information base: accuracy, timeliness, reportingand controlling. The common benefits of E-HRM frequently cited inmost of the studies included improved accuracy, the provision of timely andquick access to information, and the saving of costs (Tetz, 1973).
Tixier (2004) considered E-HRM as aharmonizing tool that helps in developing HR management. In line with this,Lederer (1984) discussed how the accuracy and timeliness of E-HRM is veryimportant in terms of operating, controlling, and planning activities in HR. Weatherly(2005) revealed that E-HRM improves customer service levels to managers andemployees as well as enhances the lines of communication between the organizationand its employees.