In the world, the amount of foodwaste is increasing day by day despite there is an effort by doing studies forreducing food waste. 1 According to the data of the European Community, 2000million tonnesof waste are disposed annually and 14% of these wastes constitute solid waste.2 It is forethought that globally ~ 2500 million tonnes of food waste will begenerated by 2025, so wasting of food needs to be avoided, decreased, processedand recycled to develop a sustainable circular economy.
3 Recently, differenttypes of studies are done for the selective use of the industrial and foodwastes and the main purpose ofthese studies is to ensure that a food is used as efficiently as possible. 1In food production firms, most of food wastes are not used and some part ofthem are converted into products with lower economic value by using differenttechnologies. Solid wastes of food industries and firms are most important resourcesof protein. 2 Collagen is a main structural fibrousprotein that contributes in the connective tissues and used for different typesof industrial applications. 4 The waste of food protein refers the wastecollagen waste as well as and gelatin waste because gelatin is produced fromcollagen with denaturation process.
In the National Formulary, gelatin isdescribed as a protein that is produced by partial hydrolysis of collagen whichis extracted from white connective tissues, bones and skins of animals. 5According to the Food Chemicals Codex, gelatin is the product which isextracted from the alkaline, acid, or enzymatic hydrolysis of collagen, and themain protein component of the bones, skin, and connective tissues of animalsuch as poultry and fish. 5 Gelatin which is came from a precursor ofacid-treated is named as Type A, whereas gelatin which is derived from anprocess of alkali-treated is named as Type B. 5 Gelatin has a large range ofapplications in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and photographic firms and industriesand it is used for stabilizing, thickening and gelling agent because it hassurface active properties. 6 In 1685, the first commercial gelatin productionhas been in Holland and then England followed Holland with producing gelatinabout 1700. 5 In the United States, the first commercial gelatin productionwas in Massachusetts in 1808. 5 It is used for improving the viscosity inaqueous systems and for forming aqueous gels.
7 It has lots of useful propertiessuch as a characteristic rheology which means melt-in-the-mouth, thermo-reversibilityand an excellent flavor releasing. 7Gelatin which is derived fromcollagen is a denaturalized protein and it is generally extracted from bovineor porcine skins and bones. 8 There is not any plant source of gelatin, andthere is not any chemical relationship between gelatin and other substancesnamed to vegetable gelatin, such as seaweed extracts. 5 Gelatin is generallyproduced from pigs and bovines. In the world, the gelatin production wasestimated as 300 thousand metric tons and 46% of them was produced frompigskin, 29.
4% was produced from hides of bovines, 23.1% of was came frombones, and 1.5% was came from other parts. 9 2.1.
Problem Statement Turkey is a country which issurrounded by three seas. Therefore, there are lots of hunting, production andconsumption of marine food especially fishes. The big part of fish can be wasteafter processing and consuming. However, the fish waste still includesimportant source of protein as well as collagen and gelatin. There is a problemof wasting of fishes which are important sources of gelatin. In literature,there are some articles about fish gelatin production.
Generally, the fishgelatin is produced from fish skin, scales and fins. However, gelatin fromthese parts of fish can have fishy odour. 10 It is thought that the fish bonewill not lead odours problems when the fish bones are used for production ofgelatin. The solution of decreasing fish waste is producing fish gelatin byusing fish bone. Very limited amount of articles and researches are done aboutgelatin production from fish bones. 1,8,11,12,13,14 Therefore, differenttypes of fishes should be tried and used for producing gelatin from fish bones toget high yield gelatin with good features and to contribute for food science. 2.2.
Why is The Project Worth Doing The significant amount of fishes ishunted, grown and consumed all around the world. In Turkey, the total amount ofhunting and growing fish is 588715 tones in 2016. 15The significant amount of these tones is coming from the bones weight offishes. The bones are used just for producing fish flour.
This situation shows thatthe considerable potential of gelatin can be produced from the fishwastes. If these bones are used forproducing gelatin, there can be adequate in food field. The fish waste can be used for gelatinproduction because the gelatin from warm-blooded animals is restricted in somecountries due to the transmission of bovine spongiform