In the research work, the archaeologist often needsto have a characterization of the studied area, in which one or anotherarchaeological monument is located. After all, the placement of many monumentsis subject to a certain topographic regularity.
For monuments occupying a largeterritory, it is important to know the topographical features of its individualparts, the location of ravines, cliffs, streams, wells, fords, etc.To identify these features and generalize theinformation available, they usually go to the studied area. Depending on thetask, the exploration can be regional (at the macroscale level), local (at themesoscale level) or monuments’ (at the microscale level). The regionalexploration covering vast territories is used for initial general acquaintancewith the region or region being studied, as well as for solving common, broadarchaeological tasks (Carver, 2013). The exploration by area is necessary for acontinuous survey of the area. It is especially important when studying thechoirs of ancient cities with densely located settlements and a system ofallotments.
The study of sites (local exploration) gives tangible results onlywhen exploring areas: the entire study area is divided into separate sections,each of which is surveyed by intersecting routes, preferably repeated. For thelocal exploration, it is necessary to have a good topographic basis, on whichindividual monuments and monuments systems are applied with the help of tools.The monuments’ exploration is aimed at in-depthstudy of monuments as well as the choice of a monument for subsequentexcavations. If an exploration is carried out in order to determine thenumerical ratio of monuments of different categories, epochs or cultures, aspecial attention should be paid to ensuring that the various natural orindividual microzones, where they are located are represented evenly (Carver,2013). The monuments of this or that type may turn out to be especiallynumerous or, on the contrary, rare in the zone that was preferred during thearchaeological exploration.
Thus, the history of a country cannot be studiedwithout archaeological materials, monuments of material culture, unusuallydiverse and thanks to modern methods of research giving rich information aboutits history and culture. A huge number of separate categories of things(ceramics, dishes, objects of everyday life and cult, tools, statues, reliefs,frescoes, etc.) are kept in different museums around the world.
The preservation of the historical and culturalheritage is a vital necessity for a modern society. The study of the nature ofthe landscape allows not only to solve the problems of localization ofhistorical objects and their interrelations but also to analyze the existingsystem, for example, the location of the population on the land surface is aset of territorial systems of different rank interconnected. The archaeologicallandscape is understood as the territory of ancient nature management, wherearchaeological finds and archeological monuments meet with a certain frequencyand regularity (Ur, 2009).
The scientific value is represented not only by thelocation of the artifacts (monuments of archeology) but also by the entireterritorial complex, and, accordingly, the landscape acquired the quality ofthe archaeological site and archaeological heritage. Thus, the holisticlandscape approach, taking into account archaeological artifacts, allowed thedevelopment of methods for reconstructing landscapes from the Neolithic to theMiddle Ages, revealing anthropogenic changes in landscapes leading to a changein the landscapes themselves, the causes of the origin, and the history of thedevelopment of the settlement system. ReferencesCarver,M. (2013). Archaeological Investigation.Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge.Ur, J.
A.(2009). Emergent Landscapes of Movement in Early Bronze Age NorthernMesopotamia. In J. E.
Snead, C. Erickson, & A. W. Darling (Eds.), Landscapes of Movement: Paths, Trails, andRoads in Anthropological Perspective (pp. 180-203).
Philadelphia:University of Pennsylvania Museum Press.