In management, manager has an effective and efficient

       In management, manager has an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling organisation resources and monitor the plan so the company can achieve organisation goals. Management focuses more on plan and budget the resources for achieving specific results. So, they can reduce the risk of not getting the results. They focus on short-term results rather than focus on long-term. Its emphasis on production of good and services that are provided to customers. Manager uses their position power to ask the employee to achieve specific goals. Management is dealing with problem which the answers are given. The outcome of the management is they maintain stability, predictability and create a culture of efficiency (Daft, 2014, pp. 13-17).

        However, leadership concern with creating vision and shared values and provide learning opportunities to followers so everyone is in the same direction of working. In the workplace, leader encourages networks and flexibility in working situations. It producing changes expected to accomplish the vision. They focus on long-term results. Leadership will invest in people which uses their personal influence and trust to inspire follower to complete goals. Leadership attract and energize people by motivating them through purpose and challenges that they are facing rather than giving rewards or punishment to the followers. Good leaders are concern for other people and act on their belief. Followers feel that they are part of the community and have contributed something to the society. They will admit their mistake and listen to other people suggestions. An effective leader will know who they are and what they stand for. True leader has open-minded and listen to other people opinion. The outcome of the leadership is they create change and create a culture of agility and integrity (Daft, 2014, pp. 13-17).

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Daft, R. L. (2014). The Leadership Experience: Cengage Learning.

Kotter, J. P. (2013). Management is (still) not leadership. Harvard Business Review, 9.

Zaleznik, A. (1977). Managers and leaders: Are they different.

Management is about processes such as planning, budgeting, structuring and staffing jobs, measuring performance and solving problem so the company will know how to improve the productivity. So, management is about deciding (Kotter, 2013).

Leadership is creating change through a vision. They find opportunities that are coming and can successfully utilise those opportunities in the future. It is because of the leader behaviour so more people are willing to be followers (Kotter, 2013).

















Managers hold conceptions, deep in psyches of chaos and order. They emphasis in process, seek stability and control and solve problem quickly. Manager works as an enabling process which involves employee to make decisions. If employee did something wrong, they use punishment, so the employee will be alert while working. Manager tends to solve a win-lose problem to win-win problem. They are focus on how to make decision-making (Zaleznik, 1977).

Moreover, manager prefers to work with people because they do not like to do work alone in the activity. Managers tell successful people stories to their subordinates. So, they can learn something from successful people. Managers are working in one to one relationship where there is more formal and recognised difference in the power of the employees. Manager is conservators and regulators person. They tend to be once-born personalities which means that their lives are peaceful flow since birth (Zaleznik, 1977).

Leaders tolerate chaos, lack of structure and willing to find answer to solve the issues. Leadership using power to influence other people thoughts and action. They think about their goals, shaping ideas, altering moods and determines the direction of the business. A vision is needed as a strategy to succeed. A leader will have a lot of imagination to succeed in their life. Leaders concern about the ideas that employee had given. Leaders often seek for chance of opportunity. They focus on what decision to make so it can solve the problem. Leader tend to be twice-born personalities which means that once they are born they feel struggle in their lives and feel never belong to the environment (Zaleznik, 1977).

Trait theories of leadership is a leader have personal traits such as intelligence and self-confidence that different from non-leaders to contribute to success. This trait is hard to train because it is born and not made (Daft, 2014).