In more than 24hrs”. The early definition of

In
this essay, a variety of trends are going to be explored from the twentieth
century which has influenced the development of tourism.   Tourism trends are tourism behaviour, it
looks at the new changes in the current trends to adapt from the consumer.  “Tourism is the activities of persons
travelling to and staying in places outside for more than 24hrs”.  The early definition of tourism in 1910 an
Austrian economist Herman Von Schiller; “The sum total of operations mainly
economic nature, which directly relates to the entry, stay and movement of
foreigners inside and outside a certain country, city or region.”   Wahab (1971) quotes; “the function of
tourism is to import currency from forgoing resources into the country.”  Each definition of tourism has their own
criticism, as a sum of tourism means that a person is travelling outside their
usual home because they have their own personal reasons. In this essay, I will
discuss the topics of car ownership, package holidays, technology, holiday
camps, fashion trends and air transport as these are the main trends which have
an impact in the 20th century. 

 Car ownership in the 20th century began with
8,000 cars and at the end of the year it was 21 million, which meant there were
massive improvements of infrastructure and London was the first city that began
in 1950-1970 there was a high standard of living and the reduction of car
prices, and in 1960 London alone made a lot of profit from cars as 1.5 people
bought cars.  A problem that car
ownership brought was traffic congestion especially central London as it is
already populated.  Gradually over time,
the double-decker bus began in London, by Douglas Scott, and by 1962 minicabs
was introduced in London and London underground started which was designed by
Alex Moulton, for easy access to the locals and tourists.  By 1963, 20,000 cars were manufactured and
Britain was well known for the European countries and car manufacturer.  In 1936 the British government began a road
tax, so people can be aware while they are driving, and for safer travel.   They are also three themes in the
development of a car which are the image of a car, entertainment and leisure
and social and economics of the scale of cars. 
From the view of the car as an image, Nicholas Zurbrugg discussed the
car in modern literature as an expression of male auto- critic fantasy.  He discusses the pessimistic and optimistic,
and concluded: “that something neither threatening nor extravagant but simply
interesting and unpredictable.” Len Holder states “like clothes and other
objectives are outward signs or representations of values, cultural or
otherwise, which stretch beyond the object itself.”  From both of these points, we can evaluate
that the car has unique features and different with an own purpose.    From the theme of entertainment and leisure,
Steve Morewoods emulates “the racing cars lively acceleration, high maximum
speed and good road holding characteristics, be in at a lesser level.”  From this view, it shows that driving in a
car is really fun and depends on what speed a person is driving.  The theme of sales and production, from Brad
Beavan’s examination of the shop floor of the early workers in the motor
industry, were not motivated. He argues that “workers continued to impose
collectively their autonomy within the work process.”  Tom Donnelly states, “The women’s status
during the war is growing a variety of occupations”, Donnelly concludes “that
exposures to industrial work raised women’s confidence in their interests of
the war.”  From these views, it showed
about the workforce in the 20th century as it wasn’t fair due to conditions,
but women’s confidence raised up as, working in the car industry.  Air transport began in the 1970s as this is
when it came to be seen as another transport service, the market forces began
to play a role as they fixed prices on the operations and safety measures also
in the US had an air degradations act in 1978 to open the air industry for
competition.  Many new carriers have
emerged and low-cost airlines were being introduced such as Ryanair, North-west
in the US, and now Deccan in India is planning to conduct a low-cost carrier,
as people can travel at a reasonable price. 
Graham 1995 said, “Emergence of the hub and spoke networks dominated by
a single carrier, air transport is still dominated by bilateral agreements
between nations this means that there are still arguments within the air
industry and should be improved by having more destinations or new directions.   Therefore package holidays have been
introduced which is done by the travel agent which includes transport,
accommodation and food at an inclusive price. 
In the early 1950s critics was one of the main tourist places to target,
but it has moved on from 1936 when Eugene Fodor’s guide notes that the island
was considering its inaccessibility and the most backward spots in  Europe in point of luxurious accommodation
for travellers.  The package holidays
have replaced the seaside holidays for the British. As looking back on history
the man who invented package holidays was Thomas Cook has it started from an
organised train from Leicester to Loughborough and he was able to show that
they are other ways to travel such as rail, road and sea and because of him
nowadays tourists travel often.  Looking
at the 20th century very few British working class could afford package
holidays, and if they could they were film stars, jet-setters, and the
super-rich. 

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 Technology in the 20th century had an impact
on the WW1 and WW2, and the first atomic bomb in Alamogordo in July 1945. As in
wars many soldiers are fighting for countries they are a lot of injuries and
illness which were taking place, therefore vaccination was introduced by a
scientist called Louis Pasteur to prevent any diseases from happening again
such as tetanus and typhus.  Also, the
improvement of antibiotics to treat plethora and any bacteria were refined so
the soldiers and the locals would not have any problems, and have a better life
ahead.  As we are all used to our mobile
phones, but looking in the 20th century the first device was a new portable
device was radios as they saved a lot of battery and it is the most accessible
device during those times as all the mothers and children could listen what was
happening in the war and be able to keep up to date, also they could carry it
around with them.  Televisions began in
the 1950s and the scientists first tested the vacuum tubes, but in the 20th
century TV contributed a lot has it was visual images of the war, as the radio
was a source was just to listen therefore TV helped people in the 20th to come
together for entertainment, news and weather and also the nearby events which
would take place.   

Holiday
camps was a hit in Britain in the decades following world war 2, the golden age
was between the 1940s and early 60s as the holidaymakers failed to get the
attention from tourists to make a holiday to Butlins, but in the 1980s it began
to grow with few Britons going to Butlins for holiday and it was mainly on the
coastlines. Butlins Pontins and Warners where the well most commercials holiday
camps, but before the 1950s the camps were small, fresh air, wholesome food,
clean and affordable prices.  The
first-holiday camp was Cunningham Young which was the men’s holiday camp which
started 1894, they were working lads institute in Liverpool.  The war brought the halt for holiday camps
and they were used for military use, but after the war Britons were desperate
for their first holiday, and this was proved by later years by Butlins trying
to attract new tourists by putting up slogans such as “a week’s holiday for a
week’s wage proven irresistible.” In the 1950s and 60s had a new phrase which
was “when it’s wet it’s always fine at Butlins”, therefore this led to a growth
for Butlins and holiday camps began to grow rapidly.  At this point, it reached the golden era for
holiday camps, because Butlins had nine camps and catering for 60,000 campers a
week.  By the late 1970s, many of the
camps at home were changing as the reputation grew and many became modern to
meet consumer’s needs, and new ideas introduced such as centre parts which were
in late 80s and set in natural woodland. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

Concorde
is the first supersonic commercial aeroplane that was manufactured in Great
Britain and France. The French and British governments signed a treaty
regarding the production and development of the aircraft, the British industry
was more advanced than the French but the treaty said it should be equal
sharing between the two countries. Also will be the discussed the political
conditions between the two counties as motivating the British to sacrifice
their aviation lead by collaborating with France and the British to join
Europe.  In 1962 negotiation with France
had not been promising and they were keen to resolve any issues, in June
Macmillan de Gaulle meeting discussed that the British contribution to European
cooperation was unexpected. It was believed widely that Prime Minister Heath’s
own central policy review staff wanted to cancel at the end of 1973 meant that
sales of thirty aircraft would succeed. In the late 1960s, there were new
designs in responses to the planes commercial require was done by the
engineers.  As Concorde became vital to
the industries they saw themselves as vital to their countries.   The plane became popular and would mean they
have to be accepted by the national airlines. 
Now the routes were rotational and the original British vision was to sell
supersonic artefact to the US carriers for transcontinental travel, and the
French colleagues began to solve the noise problems that the aircraft was
having at that time.  The most important
routes would link Europe and the US, which means flying from capital to capital
such as London, Paris to Washington and the European capitals.  The British and French won their case at a
court which meant it Concorde could fly to Kennedy International airport, this
was in 1977, and Concorde had regular flights from now on which meant more
luxury air travel was done by the British as it was a faster way to get to
destinations like New York.  Air France
and British Airways pilots would be more trained at an advanced level as it’s a
supersonic aircraft and they should be able to avoid steep turns and would be
monitored by FAA.  The current issues on
Concorde were that it faced a problem on July 25, 2000, from Paris to New York
there was an engine failure and the fuel tank burst in flames, with 109
passengers on board. 

 During the 20th century tanning was seen as a
fashion trend, therefore British and Americans took precautions to maintain a
light skin tone, as they wore accessories like hats. Magazines in the early
20th century advertised powders that would conceal a tan as well as numerous
bleach treatments, such as Bleaching Cream, Toxic lead-based cosmetics, which
date back to ancient Roman society, and other types of body powders were
commonly used to lighten.  There was a
culture shift in the tanning as many magazines began to promote, and it
targeted a huge population which meant a huge disposable income, and the two
famous magazines were the vogue and harper’s bazaar as many women were
influenced in buying to help with the tanning, sun protection and fashion trends.  Mainly the upper class are favouring the sun
tanning as they are wealthier and able to afford, as they are fair skinned but
the problem that is arising is skin cancer “no melanoma skin cancer became the
most common cancer in the world during the 20th century.”  As time continued there were more solutions
as UV light was introduced in America and Europe to prevent any skin
diseases.   As suggested by Segrave, “in
the early 20th century, the medical and scientific communities had started to
appreciate the role of sunlight in the treatment of tuberculosis and rickets,”
therefore sunlight is not a bad, as it is a natural source of vitamin D and
people can avoid being sunburn if they apply sun cream, otherwise summer is the
good season for fun and enjoyment.  

 

Overall
in this essay I have been able to critically discuss the trends in the 20th
century, from this essay I have learnt that it was tough time due to the trends
as in those times there was poor infrastructure, and mainly the middle and
upper class had opportunities to do with a job, and the low class struggled for
money.    Car ownership contributed well
in London due to improved transport as better railways, buses, and
undergrounds, therefore, accessibility grew in the 20th century, which meant the
tourists and locals can get around places quicker, but also had a downfall
which was traffic congestion as London is already overcrowded. Package holidays
has grown rapidly in the century, as taken by families and the demand of tour
operators as it was cheaper and much comfortable way to travel, which meant air
transports improved as charter flights were also being offered and being able
to reach more destinations.  Concorde
served mainly the upper class in the 20th century, but it was the best
technology as it flew at a high speed and to allow an increase of a number of
tourists visiting destinations and with an extraordinary travel experience
while on the aircraft.  The 20th century
was improved by technology due to radios being introduced and other inventions
made by scientists, and tourism has been able to follow a pattern and gradually
over the other the next years, more tourists in destinations.