Inthis essay, a variety of trends are going to be explored from the twentiethcentury which has influenced the development of tourism. Tourism trends are tourism behaviour, itlooks at the new changes in the current trends to adapt from the consumer.
“Tourism is the activities of personstravelling to and staying in places outside for more than 24hrs”. The early definition of tourism in 1910 anAustrian economist Herman Von Schiller; “The sum total of operations mainlyeconomic nature, which directly relates to the entry, stay and movement offoreigners inside and outside a certain country, city or region.” Wahab (1971) quotes; “the function oftourism is to import currency from forgoing resources into the country.” Each definition of tourism has their owncriticism, as a sum of tourism means that a person is travelling outside theirusual home because they have their own personal reasons.
In this essay, I willdiscuss the topics of car ownership, package holidays, technology, holidaycamps, fashion trends and air transport as these are the main trends which havean impact in the 20th century. Car ownership in the 20th century began with8,000 cars and at the end of the year it was 21 million, which meant there weremassive improvements of infrastructure and London was the first city that beganin 1950-1970 there was a high standard of living and the reduction of carprices, and in 1960 London alone made a lot of profit from cars as 1.5 peoplebought cars. A problem that carownership brought was traffic congestion especially central London as it isalready populated. Gradually over time,the double-decker bus began in London, by Douglas Scott, and by 1962 minicabswas introduced in London and London underground started which was designed byAlex Moulton, for easy access to the locals and tourists. By 1963, 20,000 cars were manufactured andBritain was well known for the European countries and car manufacturer. In 1936 the British government began a roadtax, so people can be aware while they are driving, and for safer travel. They are also three themes in thedevelopment of a car which are the image of a car, entertainment and leisureand social and economics of the scale of cars.
From the view of the car as an image, Nicholas Zurbrugg discussed thecar in modern literature as an expression of male auto- critic fantasy. He discusses the pessimistic and optimistic,and concluded: “that something neither threatening nor extravagant but simplyinteresting and unpredictable.” Len Holder states “like clothes and otherobjectives are outward signs or representations of values, cultural orotherwise, which stretch beyond the object itself.” From both of these points, we can evaluatethat the car has unique features and different with an own purpose. From the theme of entertainment and leisure,Steve Morewoods emulates “the racing cars lively acceleration, high maximumspeed and good road holding characteristics, be in at a lesser level.” From this view, it shows that driving in acar is really fun and depends on what speed a person is driving. The theme of sales and production, from BradBeavan’s examination of the shop floor of the early workers in the motorindustry, were not motivated. He argues that “workers continued to imposecollectively their autonomy within the work process.
” Tom Donnelly states, “The women’s statusduring the war is growing a variety of occupations”, Donnelly concludes “thatexposures to industrial work raised women’s confidence in their interests ofthe war.” From these views, it showedabout the workforce in the 20th century as it wasn’t fair due to conditions,but women’s confidence raised up as, working in the car industry. Air transport began in the 1970s as this iswhen it came to be seen as another transport service, the market forces beganto play a role as they fixed prices on the operations and safety measures alsoin the US had an air degradations act in 1978 to open the air industry forcompetition. Many new carriers haveemerged and low-cost airlines were being introduced such as Ryanair, North-westin the US, and now Deccan in India is planning to conduct a low-cost carrier,as people can travel at a reasonable price. Graham 1995 said, “Emergence of the hub and spoke networks dominated bya single carrier, air transport is still dominated by bilateral agreementsbetween nations this means that there are still arguments within the airindustry and should be improved by having more destinations or new directions.
Therefore package holidays have beenintroduced which is done by the travel agent which includes transport,accommodation and food at an inclusive price. In the early 1950s critics was one of the main tourist places to target,but it has moved on from 1936 when Eugene Fodor’s guide notes that the islandwas considering its inaccessibility and the most backward spots in Europe in point of luxurious accommodationfor travellers. The package holidayshave replaced the seaside holidays for the British.
As looking back on historythe man who invented package holidays was Thomas Cook has it started from anorganised train from Leicester to Loughborough and he was able to show thatthey are other ways to travel such as rail, road and sea and because of himnowadays tourists travel often. Lookingat the 20th century very few British working class could afford packageholidays, and if they could they were film stars, jet-setters, and thesuper-rich. Technology in the 20th century had an impacton the WW1 and WW2, and the first atomic bomb in Alamogordo in July 1945. As inwars many soldiers are fighting for countries they are a lot of injuries andillness which were taking place, therefore vaccination was introduced by ascientist called Louis Pasteur to prevent any diseases from happening againsuch as tetanus and typhus. Also, theimprovement of antibiotics to treat plethora and any bacteria were refined sothe soldiers and the locals would not have any problems, and have a better lifeahead. As we are all used to our mobilephones, but looking in the 20th century the first device was a new portabledevice was radios as they saved a lot of battery and it is the most accessibledevice during those times as all the mothers and children could listen what washappening in the war and be able to keep up to date, also they could carry itaround with them.
Televisions began inthe 1950s and the scientists first tested the vacuum tubes, but in the 20thcentury TV contributed a lot has it was visual images of the war, as the radiowas a source was just to listen therefore TV helped people in the 20th to cometogether for entertainment, news and weather and also the nearby events whichwould take place. Holidaycamps was a hit in Britain in the decades following world war 2, the golden agewas between the 1940s and early 60s as the holidaymakers failed to get theattention from tourists to make a holiday to Butlins, but in the 1980s it beganto grow with few Britons going to Butlins for holiday and it was mainly on thecoastlines. Butlins Pontins and Warners where the well most commercials holidaycamps, but before the 1950s the camps were small, fresh air, wholesome food,clean and affordable prices.
Thefirst-holiday camp was Cunningham Young which was the men’s holiday camp whichstarted 1894, they were working lads institute in Liverpool. The war brought the halt for holiday campsand they were used for military use, but after the war Britons were desperatefor their first holiday, and this was proved by later years by Butlins tryingto attract new tourists by putting up slogans such as “a week’s holiday for aweek’s wage proven irresistible.” In the 1950s and 60s had a new phrase whichwas “when it’s wet it’s always fine at Butlins”, therefore this led to a growthfor Butlins and holiday camps began to grow rapidly. At this point, it reached the golden era forholiday camps, because Butlins had nine camps and catering for 60,000 campers aweek. By the late 1970s, many of thecamps at home were changing as the reputation grew and many became modern tomeet consumer’s needs, and new ideas introduced such as centre parts which werein late 80s and set in natural woodland.
Concordeis the first supersonic commercial aeroplane that was manufactured in GreatBritain and France. The French and British governments signed a treatyregarding the production and development of the aircraft, the British industrywas more advanced than the French but the treaty said it should be equalsharing between the two countries. Also will be the discussed the politicalconditions between the two counties as motivating the British to sacrificetheir aviation lead by collaborating with France and the British to joinEurope. In 1962 negotiation with Francehad not been promising and they were keen to resolve any issues, in JuneMacmillan de Gaulle meeting discussed that the British contribution to Europeancooperation was unexpected. It was believed widely that Prime Minister Heath’sown central policy review staff wanted to cancel at the end of 1973 meant thatsales of thirty aircraft would succeed. In the late 1960s, there were newdesigns in responses to the planes commercial require was done by theengineers.
As Concorde became vital tothe industries they saw themselves as vital to their countries. The plane became popular and would mean theyhave to be accepted by the national airlines. Now the routes were rotational and the original British vision was to sellsupersonic artefact to the US carriers for transcontinental travel, and theFrench colleagues began to solve the noise problems that the aircraft washaving at that time. The most importantroutes would link Europe and the US, which means flying from capital to capitalsuch as London, Paris to Washington and the European capitals. The British and French won their case at acourt which meant it Concorde could fly to Kennedy International airport, thiswas in 1977, and Concorde had regular flights from now on which meant moreluxury air travel was done by the British as it was a faster way to get todestinations like New York.
Air Franceand British Airways pilots would be more trained at an advanced level as it’s asupersonic aircraft and they should be able to avoid steep turns and would bemonitored by FAA. The current issues onConcorde were that it faced a problem on July 25, 2000, from Paris to New Yorkthere was an engine failure and the fuel tank burst in flames, with 109passengers on board. During the 20th century tanning was seen as afashion trend, therefore British and Americans took precautions to maintain alight skin tone, as they wore accessories like hats. Magazines in the early20th century advertised powders that would conceal a tan as well as numerousbleach treatments, such as Bleaching Cream, Toxic lead-based cosmetics, whichdate back to ancient Roman society, and other types of body powders werecommonly used to lighten. There was aculture shift in the tanning as many magazines began to promote, and ittargeted a huge population which meant a huge disposable income, and the twofamous magazines were the vogue and harper’s bazaar as many women wereinfluenced in buying to help with the tanning, sun protection and fashion trends.
Mainly the upper class are favouring the suntanning as they are wealthier and able to afford, as they are fair skinned butthe problem that is arising is skin cancer “no melanoma skin cancer became themost common cancer in the world during the 20th century.” As time continued there were more solutionsas UV light was introduced in America and Europe to prevent any skindiseases. As suggested by Segrave, “inthe early 20th century, the medical and scientific communities had started toappreciate the role of sunlight in the treatment of tuberculosis and rickets,”therefore sunlight is not a bad, as it is a natural source of vitamin D andpeople can avoid being sunburn if they apply sun cream, otherwise summer is thegood season for fun and enjoyment. Overallin this essay I have been able to critically discuss the trends in the 20thcentury, from this essay I have learnt that it was tough time due to the trendsas in those times there was poor infrastructure, and mainly the middle andupper class had opportunities to do with a job, and the low class struggled formoney. Car ownership contributed wellin London due to improved transport as better railways, buses, andundergrounds, therefore, accessibility grew in the 20th century, which meant thetourists and locals can get around places quicker, but also had a downfallwhich was traffic congestion as London is already overcrowded. Package holidayshas grown rapidly in the century, as taken by families and the demand of touroperators as it was cheaper and much comfortable way to travel, which meant airtransports improved as charter flights were also being offered and being ableto reach more destinations.
Concordeserved mainly the upper class in the 20th century, but it was the besttechnology as it flew at a high speed and to allow an increase of a number oftourists visiting destinations and with an extraordinary travel experiencewhile on the aircraft. The 20th centurywas improved by technology due to radios being introduced and other inventionsmade by scientists, and tourism has been able to follow a pattern and graduallyover the other the next years, more tourists in destinations.