In occur on the macroforms while those in

In essence all three types of bed forms may not necessarilyoccur in all river types as their hierarchy varies in relation to the particlesize of the bed material and mean of the water depth. Macroforms are mostlyprevalent in rivers with gravel beds.  Thebed form configuration should be stable at all times during the floods, assuch, the three groups of bed forms occur mostly in super positions in riversthat have sand beds.

  In suchcircumstances, the flow of the mesoforms occur on the macroforms while those inmicroforms are partly found on the surfaces of mesoforms.  Hence, the transportation of sandy bed loadsis not merely restricted to the occurrence of large disharchges but incontinuous events which helps in the continuous change of the bed form.  This in turn is advantageous in relation tothe area covered by mesoforms and microforms in decreasing discharges.  The distribution of formation of bed forms isaffected by plant growth e.g.

stems and leaves bars the flow which in turnaffects interaction between water and the bare bed.  Vegetation coverage is largely influential insmall rivers and streams as the shallow waters and the low specific streamwater power makes them highly suitable for plants.Integrated river management is entirely dependent on thespatio-temporal variations that are experienced in streams and river channelbed forms.  Bed forms are particularlyimportant in the determination of flow resistance and the cross-sectionaldimensions which are key in ecological assessments.  Bed forms act as physical habitat for aquaticmacrophytes and the aquatic fauna due to their interaction with water flow andwith channel substrates.  Bed formdiversity helps in determination of their biodiversity mainly due to the fact amajority of these species that are located in pristine rivers are reliant onspecific conditions that enable their establishment, for the purpose offeeding, provision of shelter and for reproduction.

  In areas where some fauna species are relianton different habits with smaller proximities, others are dependent on habitatcharacteristics that enable them to change as their lifecycle is adapted to thepulsing created through water discharge. An increase in bed form diversity through space and time is thereforeessential for many rehabilitation projects which are created on streams orrivers.

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