In today’s international communityof polities the Federalism is an important and broadly implemented feature.Around 70% of the world states are believed to have at least some element offederalism, around 20% of the nations are considered to be federal states, and40% of the world’s population lives in these countries. The combination betweenself-rule and shared rule is of greatest importance in a federal state, regionsor provinces should have. The federalism involves the linkage of individuals,groups and polities in a limited union that provinces for active pursuit forcommon end and at the same time maintains the integrities of all parties.
The Republic of thePhilippines is currently under a unitary form of government which is extremelycentralized. In this form of government, the president is both the head of thestate and head of the government. This means that he has a general supervisionover local governments which are dependent on the national as the constitutionhas concentrated political powers and authority in national government.
Ourautonomous regions, provinces, municipalities and barangays can only exercisepowers and enact policies that the central government chooses to delegate tothem. Recently, some politician, scholars and experts are looking into thefederal option of the next step for Philippine governance. Not only Philippinesbut also other countries are interested on adopting the federal system. Afterdevolution, some argued that federalism is the next logical step in thePhilippines. The one who has a concrete example of federal structure is theproposal of Senator Aquilino “Nene” Pimentel Jr., Which is a semi presidential formof government in the Philippines.
Under this system, we will have a Presidentand a Prime Minister. The President will be directly elected by thepeople. He will be the head of thestate, commander in chief of the armed forces, Chief Diplomat and the symbol ofunity of the nation. Also, will be the responsible for national and foreignaffairs.
The Prime Minister will be elected by the House ofRepresentative/National Assembly and formally appointed by the President. Hewill be head of government and will appoint the members of the Cabinet and allother officials not within the powers of the President. Also, he “runs thegovernment” and is responsible for domestic and economic policy. Proposed thatthere should be two constitutionally established orders of government primarilyaccountable to its respective electorates, the federal government and regionalgovernment. Each level of government has its particular jurisdiction.
The surgical operation will create 11 FederalStates out of the existing political subdivisions of the country and onefederal administrative region. The federal powers will concerns the entirenation while the regional power will be the basic service to the people. Theshared power is the basic service that is best provided under a nationalstandard and all the residual powers are retained by the Federal Government butmay be delegated to the regional government. The Resolution also disperses theseats of power of the major branches of government. The executive departmentwill hold offices in the Federal Administrative Region of Metro-Manila, thelegislative department will hold office in the Federal State of Central Visayasand the judicial department will hold office in the Federal State of NorthernMindanao.
By so doing, aside from the Luzon, the two other major geographicalregions of the country, the Visayas and Mindanao will now fully appreciate thatthey are important parts – not merely appendices – of the Republic. Thelegislative powers of the Republic are shared mainly by the law-making powersof the Federal Republic and the States. But the provincial, city, municipal andbarangay powers and structures are basically left intact. In terms ofallocating the resources of the Republic, Each state will be able to keep 80% of their income andfunds to themselves, and only 20% of that would go to the Federal NationalGovernment. And out from 80% of each state, 30% of that would go to the LocalState Government and 70% would go to the Provinces, Cities, Municipalities andBarangays. Even we are under federalism we are still one country: oneConstitution, one Flag, one National Anthem, one Foreign Policy, one ArmedForces one National Police Force, one Public Education System, one Central Bankand Monetary System.The Philippine has 7,107 islandseach with diverse tribes and cultures and obviously each region has their ownspecific needs.
By shifting from a unitary to a federal type of government wecan achieved economic reforms, equal justice, and progress to each state anddecongest metro Manila as some would have put it. Right now most of thedevelopments are in metro Manila, with federalism this would be shared acrossthe nation. Advocates of federalism believe that the structure of federalsystem would respond to the general obstacle and differences cause by culturaldiversity on governance because it allows fragmentation and at the same timepromoting national interest.