In platform. Next, complementarities refer to the ability

In
order to specify the value creation logic, Amit and Zott (2001) used a
framework of efficiency, complementarities, lock-in, and novelty. Based on
assessment at focal consumer goods manufacturer, it is applied to compare a
traditional manufacturer-centric logic with a new consumer-centric logic within
this business model framework (Bogers et al., 2016). In table 1, efficiency
refers to cost reduction offered by the manufacturing platform. Next, complementarities
refer to the ability to offer the consumer products and packages together such
as offering after-sale services or other products. Furthermore, lock-in refers
to the ability to gain loyalty from consumers for future transactions, this can
be done by rewarding customers through events. Lastly, novelty refers to the
ability to renew product offerings, which means the first mover strategy can
gain benefits ahead while it also can support consumer lock-in. As
mentioned earlier, the advantages of 3D printing offer the consumer the chance
to be active and take over productive activities of the manufacturer. Toffler
(1980) suggests calling this consumer as a “prosumer”, who may take an
important role in the digital and information era. In addition, Rennie (2007)
refers this term to the use of media, where consumers using the supports of
social media and the Internet to take the role of producers of media. With the
specific potential for consumer-centric and personalized production systems, 3D
printing technologies allow a consumer to perform as users of the technologies
in producing. Moreover, the fact end users of 3D printing can utilize the
technology to produce for themselves and others may involve a primal change to
the global structure of manufacturing. Wohlers (2013) points out there is a
rapid change of the personal desktop printers since 2007 to 2012. It is safe to
say that the prices of a personal 3D printer will reasonably decrease in the
future, so there will be more consumers who also owns a personal 3D printer
(Wohlers, 2014).   Moreover,
completely consumer-centric production systems can point out the personalization
of manufacturing (Bogers et al., 2016). Particularly, in order to increase the
individualization of a specific consumer, manufacturers can propose consumers
who own a 3D printer opportunities to print their own parts. With the
advancements of the Internet, manufacturers can provide an online service
design to support and satisfy consumers. Furthermore, manufacturers may also
suggest printing methods for consumers who have their own designs, which may be
shared with others, giving a chance to form a dynamic community (Lakhani and
von Hippel, 2003). Besides, manufacturers can gain profit by charging for
printing document since it may be shared and used by many users, this also
create high lock-in definitely. Additionally, manufacturer can also boost their
current products since designs offered by them can be used in the portfolio.