In recent years, the Internet of Things (IoT) has
transformed objects of everyday life into communicating devices. The number of
connected devices will be between 10 and 12 billion by 2021 1 ,making it
impossible for current network technologies to support this enormous growth.
Future networked systems must adapt existing network architectures to future
needs and design and develop new management capabilities to help meet the
stringent requirements of future use cases. In fact, the upcoming 5G networks
aim to tackle these new business opportunities by introducing very high carrier
frequencies, an enormous number of antennas and new functionalities, such as
Device-to-Device communication (D2D) and fog computing 2.
Smart cities, counties and urban corridors have
started to implement the Internet of Things (IoT) platform infrastructures, as
well as the data orchestration and edge computing that are needed to keep up
with the increasing flow of data from different sources. Not only are light
posts a valuable source of real estate for IoT deployments, but they also
represent a communications hub for fiber or wireless rollouts. A redundant
communications infrastructure will be required when the next advent of smart
machines, autonomous vehicles and bots use street fixtures to collect and
calculate, for example, the vehicles’ locations and data sources related to
driving, such as traffic congestion and traffic accidents.
In the last few years, 7 IoT applications have been
implemented as a set of small and independent micro-services. The
micro-services architecture is a relatively new term in software patterns The
micro-service paradigm is an extension of the traditional Service-Oriented
Architecture (SOA) paradigm, where an application is decomposed into a set of
fine-grained services. Each service communicates through lightweight
communication protocols. Research studies have been carried out to solve the
issues of abstracting end device functionalities, trying to provide a suitable
architecture with service management and composition capabilities able to link
a set of micro-services in a set of IoT applications. Each micro-service can be
provided by a lightweight container, which may be used by multiple tenants. In
a smart city scenario, 8 resources should be distributed within the network
ensuring that the micro-services that make up an application are allocated and
instantiated close to the end device that is requesting the IoT application.
Multiple factors should be taken into account to ensure proper resource allocation
such as latency, bandwidth, energy efficiency and cost.
In this article, Internet of Things based management
and orchestration framework is proposed to deal with the application service
placement problem in smart cities. Our approach follows the guidelines of the
European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) Network Function
Virtualization (NFV) Management and Orchestration (MANO) architecture,
extending it with additional software components, which will offer not only
high computing performance, but also monitoring and data analysis functionalities.