Individual Differences:Definition:Ø Individual differences are the differences or variations amongthe individuals in respect to one character or number of characteristics.Ø Individual differences stand for those variations whichdifferentiate one individual from the other. Ø It is the study of differences in psychological variables amongindividuals. Explanation: It is understandable that people are different from oneanother.
But how and why the individuals differ from each other is not obviousand it is the focus of the study of Individual differences. Even though tostudy individual differences appears to be to study differences, how theindividuals are different, central tendency is also studied in this respect.The main question of individual differences is whether people are more similarto themselves over time and across situations than they are to others, andwhether the variation within a single person across time and situation is lessthan the variation between peoplePersonality psychology is the field of psychology whichfocuses on human nature, unique patterns of individual differences. Many Researcheshave been carried out in Individual Differences. The Methods consisted oflaboratory experiments as well as field studies.
These researches on individual differences reports threecomprehensive questions: 1) developing descriptive catalogue of how individualsvary; 2) applying variations in one condition to forecast variations in other conditions;and 3) challenging hypothetical descriptions of the structure and dynamics ofindividual differences.Importance:The study of Individualdifferences are vital when we want to describe how the people vary in theirbehavior. In different researches, important differences occurs betweenindividuals. . Individual differences in behavior, aptitude, cognition orphysical factors like the size of body, gender, oldness, and many other factorscan be used and studied in understanding this large source of variance.
Peoplevary not only in their present state, but in the direction and magnitude ofresponse to the stimulus. This phenomena has placed the field differentialpsychology at an significant position. Causes of IndividualDifferences:Following are the causes which brings anindividual differences1. Heredity:The inherited traits brings a change inindividuals from one another. An individual’s tallness, size, hair color, face shape,and whole body structure is determinedby the individual’s heretical qualities.
Differences in intellectual level ofindividuals are also influenced by hereditary factor.2. Environment:The environmental effects are those which actupon an individual, the internal environment during the earlier stages ofdevelopment within the womb of mother and later external environment which functionsfrom the birth time. Social heritage is provided by social psychologicalenvironment in which an individual born. The socio-economic status, familybackground, the communication and interaction amongst the members of family andin later years peer relation and the environment of school creates a diverse conditionsto determine the individual differences.The individual differences in personality,intelligence, performance, activities, behaviors, and in life style are broughtabout by the environment. Only the physical surrounding is not included inEnvironment but it also consists of people, culture, their norms and values andcivilizations.3.
Gender:Because of gendervariation one individual differs from other. Males are sturdy in intellectualability. On the other hand females have small superiority over males in memory,linguistic ability and aesthetic sense. 4.
Age:Age also brings individual differences. Abilityof acquisition of knowledge and the ability of adjustment naturally increaseswith age. When an individual grows he can obtain improved control over feelingsand can perform social responsibilities in a better way. 5. Education:Individual differences are also brought aboutby an education.
There exists a large difference in the behaviors of educatedand uneducated individuals. All the qualities of individuals can be controlledthrough education.The Big Five Personality Trait DimensionsThe field of personality psychology includes manydifferent concepts, the main focus is on basic trait dimension that focuses on howwe are constant in our behavior across time and across contexts, and how we varyfrom others in our behavioral tendencies. Accordingto different personality psychologists, there are five personality dimensions, referredto as Big five personality traits. These personality traits are1. Extraversion,2.
Agreeableness, 3. Openness, 4. Conscientiousness,5. And neuroticism.
1. Extraversion-Introversion.This dimensionexplains that to what extent the person is social and how comfortable theperson feels in social situations.
The person who is extrovert do not feel anyhesitation in giving presentation or standing up on stage while the person whois introvert will feel hesitation in going to social settings, they enjoy theirown company, they prefer to be alone because they are not social and talkative.Extroverts are talkative while introverts are private and alone. Extroverts areoutgoing. It is the characteristic of extroverts that they enjoy groupconversation while the introverts enjoy one on one conversations. Extrovertpeople speaks more while the introverts listen more. Extrovert people easilyaccept the changes while introvert people struggles with the changes.
Extrovertsare more open while introverts are reserved.Extroverts have following characteristics: Love to be center of attention Starts conversation first Have a broad social circle Feels very easy in making new friends Feel more energized when surrounded by the peopleIntroverts have following characteristics: like loneliness do not feel comfortable while socializing it is very difficult for them to start a new conversation Do not like to talk others Thinks a lot before speaking Do not like top be the center of attention 2. Neuroticism-EmotionalStability.Neuroticism is a big fivepersonality trait.it refers to how theperson is emotionally instable. The neurotic person is susceptibleto sudden changes in mood and bad feelings.
Some people areemotionally stable while some people have neurotic traits. While listening tothe sound of siren the person who is neurotic might freak out while the personwho is emotionally stable might not even notice the sound of siren. Neuroticpeople have distressing feelings and thoughts that are inconsistent to theactual situations of an individual’s life.Following are the characteristics of people who are highin neuroticism: Feels more stress and tension. Takes stress and tension about different things They easily get distressed and upset. They experience intense mood swings. Feel worriedFollowing are the characteristics of people withemotional stability: They are Emotionally stable They can deal efficiently with stress Seldom feel depressed and stressed They Do not take tension about different things They are relaxed and satisfied3. Agreeableness-Disagreeableness.
It refers to how the person is friendly and tolerant.Someone who is very agreeable tends to get along with just about anyone, whilesomeone who is highly disagreeable just argues and argues. This dimension ofpersonality includes following attributes: 1. Trust.2.
Altruism.3. Kindness.4. Affection.
5. Prosocial behaviors.The individuals who are high in agreeableness are cooperative while the peoplewho are low in agreeableness are competitive and manipulative.Following are the characteristics of peoplewith agreeableness: They have more interest in other people They care a lot about other peoples They feel empathy for others They feel happiness in helping others.
Following are the characteristics of peoplewith disagreeableness: They have little or no interest in others. They don’t care about other people’s feelings They have little or no interest in problems of other people. They insult others.4. Conscientiousness-Disorganized.
This dimensionrefers to how the person is organized and on-the-ball. The person who isconscientious is a reliable person. He always gives deadlines, and keepsthe workplace clean and tidy. The person who is low in conscientiousness is latealways, he don’t make deadlines and does not keeps his workplace clean and tidy.The Standard features of this dimension are following:· High levels of meditation.· Have impulse control.· Have goal-directedbehaviors.Following are the characteristics of peoplewith high conscientiousness: Devote time preparing.
Complete important tasks at specific time. Give a great attention to details.Followingare the characteristics of people who are disorganized: Hatred structure and schedules They do not take care and creates mess. Do not return things and does not put the things back Postpone vital tasks Do not accomplish the tasks they are given to perform. 5. Openness-Closed minded.This dimension refersto being open-minded.
The person who is high in openness is open to new thoughts,new persons, and new methods of performing things. People who are low in thisdimension are closed minded and they are agree to receive new concepts andideas. People who are open-minded feel excited to visit the historical place,while the people who are closed-minded would just sit in the car for the periodof the visit.
People who have trait of openness are more adventurous and theyare creative as well. People who are closed minded are traditional and haveabstract thinking. Following are the characteristics of people who are in opennesscontinuum: Creative Do not hesitate in trying new things Attentive on attempting new tasks Feels Happiness in thinking about abstract conceptsFollowing are the characteristics of peoplewho are in closed minded continuum: Do not like changes Do not feel happiness in new things Repel new ideas Not very creative Do not like abstract concepts.