Sudan is experiencing a dreadful civil war that started ?n December 2013 and
has since split the c?untry. With the help ?f many internati?nal act?rs a peace
agreement was signed in August 2015 by the g?vernment f?rces and by pr? ?pp?siti?n
armed separatists, but b?th sides have since decided t? c?ntinue with atr?cities
and as a result fuel a war that has t?rn their c?untry apart.
These atr?cities include n?t
?nly destr?ying and pillaging civilian pr?perty, but als? murdering, raping and
t?rturing unarmed civilians especially in the area ?f Juba and ?ther regi?ns.
Vi?lence has bec?me a reality f?r the citizens in S?uth Sudan. T? escape this
nightmare many ?f them has since ch?sen t? flee their c?untry and aband?n their
h?mes and their l?ved ?nes in an attempt t? save their lives. The 3.7 billi?n
pe?ple that have fled have tried t? remain in their neighb?ring c?untries but
have ?nly f?und cl?sed d??rs. This huge number ?f refugees has created
financial instability in the area, because c?untries like Ethi?pia and Kenya
that face ec?n?mic pr?blems themselves can’t take care ?f such a huge am?unt ?f
refugees. In additi?n t? that m?re than 1.8 billi?n pe?ple had t? be internally
displaced causing furtherm?re ec?n?mical instability in the already bad ec?n?mic
situati?n that existed. The pe?ple that were left behind ,including pe?ple with
disabilities c?ntinue t? face abuses ?f their fundamental rights everyday.
But h?w did this c?nflict
begin? In December 2013 after a l?ng peri?d ?f p?litical tensi?ns military armed f?rces
faithful ?f President Salva Kiir , a Dinka, and th?se l?yal t? f?rmer Vice
President Riek Machar , a Nuer, started fighting the capital. An?ther incident
that fueled the c?nflict was the decisi?n ?f the president t? diss?lve the 10
regi?ns ?f S?uth Sudan and f?rm 28 new states.
a unite g?vernment in 2016 after the peace agreement b?th sides c?ntinued with atr?cities.
In July Machar in fear ?f his life was f?rced t? flee the c?untry after s?me
clashes in the capital. His f?rmer ally Gen Tban Deng Gai was app?inted vice
president s?mething that enc?uraged Machar’s supp?rters t? declare war ?nce again. The situati?n
in S?uth Sudan has many times been described as a critical ?ne. Un Special
Advis?r Adama Dieng warns the internati?nal c?mmunity that this n?n-st?p c?nflict
has transf?rmed int? an ethnic war and c?uld bec?me gen?cide.
peaceful referendum in January 20011, S?uth Sudan became the newest state in
the w?rld in July 2011.As a new state it struggles with the devel?pment that
needs t? ?ccur in the area in ?rder t? bec?me ec?n?mically stable. ?ne big ?bstacle
is the legacy ?f c?nflict and instability in the area that st?ps the nati?n fr?m
devel?ping. The instituti?ns are still limited due t? the lack ?f res?urces and
the g?vernment hasn’t been able t? implement any pr?grams. ?ne thing that c?uld
be used t? cause ec?n?mic devel?pment is the huge ?il supply that S?uth Sudan p?ssesses.
This c?uld be the basis ?f a m?re stable ec?n?mical and p?litical situati?n.
Due t? the
internal c?nflicts in S?uth Sudan the c?untry’s l?ng-standing gr?wth and pr?sperity
are endangered. This c?nflict d?esn’t ?nly challenge the devel?pment gains, it
als? deteri?rates the humanitarian situati?n. Alth?ugh
S?uth Sudan has vast and largely untapped natural res?urces, bey?nd a few ?il
enclaves, it remains relatively undevel?ped, characterized by a subsistence ec?n?my.
S?uth Sudan is the m?st ?il-dependent c?untry in the w?rld, with ?il acc?unting
f?r alm?st the t?tality ?f exp?rts, and ar?und 60% ?f its gr?ss d?mestic
pr?duct (GDP). ?n current reserve estimates, ?il pr?ducti?n is expected t?
reduce steadily in future years and t? bec?me negligible by 2035.
The c?untry’s gr?wth d?mestic pr?duct (GDP) per capita
in 2014 was $1,111. ?utside the ?il sect?r, livelih??ds are c?ncentrated in l?w
pr?ductive, unpaid agriculture and past?ralists w?rk, acc?unting f?r ar?und 15%
?f GDP. In fact, 85% ?f the w?rking p?pulati?n is engaged in n?n-wage w?rk, chiefly
in agriculture (78%).
The current c?nflict has had a significant financial
impact ?n S?uth Sudan with 2015/16 GDP c?ntracting by 6.3%. With ?il pr?ducti?n
disrupti?ns and bel?w-average agriculture pr?ducti?n, the ec?n?my is expected t?
c?ntract further in FY2016/02017, while fiscal and current acc?unt deficits
will s?ar, spiraling d?mestic prices and the parallel market premium. Extreme p?verty
rate has increased t? 65.9%. Av?iding pr?tracted crisis requires rec?mmitment t?
a p?litical settlement and maj?r fiscal adjustment.
decreased due t? declining ?il prices and l?wer ?il pr?ducti?n. ?il pr?ducti?n
is expected t? decrease t? ab?ut 120,000 barrel per day this fiscal year d?wn
fr?m 165,000 barrels per day in 2014 and a peak ?f 350,000 barrels per day bef?re
independence in 2011. The decline in ?il revenue, has als? had a negative
impact ?n macr?-budgetary indicat?rs, requiring austere fiscal adjustments. The
current acc?unt has deteri?rated c?nsiderably leading t? depreciati?n ?f the parallel
exchange rate and fueling inflati?n.
Key internati?nal act?rs
Interg?vernmental Auth?rity ?n Devel?pment (IGAD), as well as China, the Eur?pean
Uni?n, N?rway, the United Kingd?m, and the United States c?ntinued t? supp?rt
and m?nit?r the implementati?n ?f the peace agreement signed in August 2015.In
March 2016, the UN Human Rights C?uncil established a UN human rights missi?n t?
S?uth Sudan t? m?nit?r the human rights situati?n and eff?rts t? pr?m?te
UN secretary-general rep?rted c?ntinued ?bstructi?ns t? the peacekeeping missi?n
by g?vernment f?rces and auth?rities. In N?vember, the United States Missi?n t?
the United Nati?ns ann?unced it w?uld submit a pr?p?sal f?r an arms embarg? ?ver
S?uth Sudan, as well as additi?nal targeted individual sancti?ns.