Intro to Lit: Part 1

Theme; subject
What the emotion of a poetry is telling you
What the poem talks about upfront

Means/elements; structure, form, sounds, rhythm, allusions, references, and poetic language; unexpected words, unexpected definitions
Required to construct a poem
What are they?
What is categorized into the last one?

Paraphrasing
What can help one with the close reading of a poem?

Rhyme
Using sounds of words, typically in repetition, to make a poem “good”

Alliteration (dang dog)
Repetition of primary consonant/vowel sounds in close-by words

Assonance
Repetition of vowel sounds anywhere in a word throughout a line

Onomatopoeia (screech)
Usage of words that mimic sounds

Eye rhyme (‘dead’ and ‘mead’)
Usage of words that look like they would rhyme but do not when sounded out

Perfect rhyme; near (slant) rhyme; end rhyme; internal rhyme
‘Bat’ and ‘cat’
‘Body’ and ‘hottie’
Rhyme coming at the end of a line
Rhyme occurring inside the line

Syllable (ta-ble); accent
How words are pronounced
The emphasis in a word

Masculine rhyme; feminine rhyme
Rhyme where the accent goes on the last accented syllable
Rhyme where the accent goes on an unaccented syllable

End-stopped; enjambed (enjambment)
If a line comes to a definite end
When a line’s meaning carries over to the next

Rhyme scheme; rhyme royal
The pattern of a rhyme
Popular rhyme pattern of ABABBCC

Poetic meter
Poetic rhythm is also called this

Stressed and unstressed
Another way to say accented and unaccented

Scansion
Analyzing a poem by its meter

Foot; iamb (again); trochee (Charley); iambic meter; trochaic meter
Basic poetic meter measure
One basic measure of unstressed, stressed
One basic measure of stressed, unstressed
Rhythm of unstressed, stressed measure that is most popular poetic meter
Rhythm of stressed, unstressed measure that is most popular poetic meter

Anapest/ anapestic meter; dactyl/ dactylic meter; pyrrhus; spondee
Two unaccented syllables followed by an accented syllable in foot and meter form
One accented syllable followed by two accented syllables in foot and meter form
Two unstressed syllables in a row
Two stressed syllables in a row

Caesura (||); anacrusis
The poetic pause, symbolized by punctuation usually or an end-stop; additional beginning unstressed syllable that doesn’t affect the poem’s meter

Monometer; dimeter; trimeter; tetrameter; pentameter (MOST USED); hexameter; heptameter; octameter
One foot
Two feet
Three feet
four feet
five feet
six feet
seven feet
eight feet

Rising meter; falling meter
Iambic and anapestic feet
Trochaic and dactylic feet

Iambic pentameter; blank verse
Most used meter in English language
Same thing but unrhymed

Stanza
A poem’s paragraph, affected by meter

Figurative language (figures of speech); tone; literal language; irony
figures of speech and fancy, clever word usage are this
The way a writer conveys attitudes through diction and sound usage
Contrast to the above word; words by definition usage
In poetry, when a person says something and means the opposite

Denotative
Connotative
A word’s upfront meaning, definition
A word’s other meanings/usages, by associations

Diction
Poetic diction
Syntax
A poet’s choice of words
Refined language sometimes reserved for poetry
The order in which words appear

Imagery; visual images; aural images; tactile images; abstractions (love)
The use of physical images
Images one can see
Images one can hear
Images one can touch
Words about concepts with no immediate reality

Simile; metaphor
A comparison using like or as
A comparison without like or as

Personification
Apostrophe
Metaphor in which something non-human is compared to a human by characteristics
Addressing something that is no longer or never was alive (dead, inanimate, conceptual)

Symbol
Metonymy
Synecdoche
A word having so much meaning that the symbol is almost implicit; Usage of word in place of another related to it; usage of a word as a part of a whole to symbolize the whole

Paradox
Oxymoron
Hyperbole
Understatement
A statement that on the surface seems to contradict itself/ be impossible but has hidden importance/possibility; phrases that do contradict themselves; exaggeration in poetry; using words to suggest something is smaller than we know it really is

Closed poetry
Free verse/ open form
A poem with end rhyme
Poetry style usually without rhyme/defined meter

Couplet; stanza/verse; quatrain; sestet; octave; tercet
A unit of two perfect rhymed lines
Two of these create the basic what?
The basic 4-line unit is called what (usually within the framework of a larger poem)?
Six lines with recurring rhyme schemes?
Eight lines with recurring rhyme schemes?
Three lines creating a poetic unit

Narrative poem; epic; ballad; refrain; literary ballad
Poem that tells a story, by developing a theme/character at length, then conclude story
Oldest and longest form of this is what; usually describes a moment in history
Long, song-like, ancient narrative poems in a slow tempo, usually in quatrains, which make use of repeating choruses called what?
Narrative poems like the one above, but without a chorus, more contemporary, telling a story, and quieter

Ode; terza rima
A praise poem going all the way back to ancient Greece; can be about a person or object; long, serious, lyric poem (song-like), philosophic/ moral ideas discussed
Rhyme scheme of tercets which link by rhyme from one to the next (ABA-BCB-CDC…), used for narrative poems and ones with restless mood

Elegy
Long, formal poem to mourn the death of someone/something, and discuss the philosophical implications of such loss and how it might immortalize the subject

Sonnet; presents a theme, considers the implications, and a summarized response of the speaker to the theme; William Shakespeare; English (Shakespearian) sonnet; Italian sonnet
Famous (about) 14-line poems used for 500 years with similar line lengths and many discoverable ‘rules’; what does it usually discuss?Greatest sonneteer of them all?
Style of above poem with rhyme scheme ABAB-CDCD-EFEF-GG (3 quatrains, 1 couplet)
Style of above poem with rhyme scheme ABBA-ABBA-CDECDE/CDCDCD (1 octave, 1 sestet)

Sestina; envoy; villanelle; 2nd, 4th; 3rd, 5th
Six stanzas, each six lines long, with concluding 3-line stanza called what?; French origin; same end words repeated every stanza
Five tercets (ABA) and a quatrain (ABAA) at the end, in iambic pentameter; the first line becomes the final line of the ___ and ____ tercets, and the second-to-last one of the quatrain; the last line of the first tercet becomes the last line of the ___ and ___ tercets, and the poem’s last line

Dramatic poetry
Poetry used for drama
Poem written as a speech or long narrative that the person/subject of poem delivers to another

Pattern poem (shaped poem)
Exotic traditional poetry style, usually unrhymed, no traditional meter, uses visual set-up to express meaning behind words (or vice-versa)

Surrealists; Guillaume Apollinaire
A group of young, rebellious early 20th century writers/artists/ musicians that challenged societal/behavioral/belief/traditional norms
Led by Polish-French modernist poet who was wounded in WWI

Epigram; aphorism; limerick
Short, comical/satirical lyric poem with rhyme, making commentary/wit/observation
Extremely similar poetry style, a concise, humorous maxim/sentiment
Short, humorous, structured folk poem, with 5 lines, and 1 stanza; AABBA; rhythm is always 2 rhymed lines of three strong accents, 2 different-rhyming lines of 2 strong accents, and one line that ties to the first two is accents and rhyme; meter is anapest usually

Imagism; Erza Pound; Amy Lowell; classical Chinese and Japanese; LiT’ (Po) and Du Fu (Tu Fu); haiku; kigo; 3-line poem of 17 syllables, with lines of 5-7-5 syllables
Newer poetry style with a clear, precise message and descriptive imagery; did away with meter, rhyme, mysticism, abstractions; free verse; term coined by what poet?
What American poet took up cause?
What traditions were also being mixed into popular contemporary poetry around this time?
What two poets were main influences?
Japanese traditional poem of 17 characters (ideograms/’on’), written on a single descending line; a ‘_____’ or reference to a season, was in most of them, had juxtaposition of different images
The ‘American’ version is what?

Open form (free verse); lyric poetry; persona; confessional poetry; prose poem; associative
Poetry often without many of the restrictions of classic/traditional poetry
Short, song-like poetry expressing a speaker’s thoughts/feelings
The narrator of a poem, in described poetry above goes by ‘I’
Private, personal poems, usually expressing women’s’ rights
A kind of poetry-writing hybrid where the poem is only one part of expressing a theme; like a parable
Poetry to suggest some new image or thought

Allusion; parody
indirect reference to something the speaker/ reader would know; not a quotation
Indirectly tributes poet whose work is subject

Cities; people; animals; gestures; dislike; contempt; genuine
Rainer Maria Rilke
For the sake of a single poem, you must see many _____, many ________ and things, you must understand _________, must feel how birds fly, and know the ________ which small flowers make when they open in the morning

“Poetry” by Marianne Moore
I, too, _______ it.
Reading it, however, with a perfect _________ for it, one discovers in it, after all, a place for the __________

Searched for; summoned; a face; fever or forgotten wings; fire; the heavens; the Universe/the abyss
Pablo Nerudo’s Poetry
Poetry did what for speaker?
Speaker was what?
He was there without what?
What started in his soul?
Deciphered what?
After writing a line saw what?
Felt like part of what?

Globed fruit; old medallions; moss-covered stone; flight of birds; moon; history; grief; not mean but be
Archibald MacLeish’s ‘Ars Poetica’
Poem should be mute as what?
Should be dumb as what?
Silent as what?
Wordless as what?
Motionless as what?
For all ________ of ______
A poem should what?

Talks about how poetry begins; compares it to looking up into the night sky, then seeing a man walking a dog, and questioning the unseen possibilities; ends talking about human mortality
Ann Menebroker’s ‘A Mere Glimpse’

Discusses how poetry is not just something from the past, his reluctance to pursue poetry as a mechanic, and how we must see poetry in a contemporary time; talks about how things seemingly nonbeautious are poetry in their own rights
Fred Voss’ ‘How Many Times Can We Follow Dante Into Hell’

Talks about the power of poetry over a poet at any time
Alice Walker’s ‘I Said to Poetry’

Celebrates an alternate Universe where poetry is used to incite change; puts poetry in responsibility of revolutionaries
Victor Hernández Cruz’s ‘Today is a Day of Great Joy’

Talks about a man who died because his friends misinterpreted him in life and death; makes use of doubles; uses change in narrative, haunting sounds, and repetition
Stevie Smith’s ‘Not Waving But Drowning’

Describes a tender moment between a father and son where they dance about the house; includes references to death, perhaps the father’s inevitable one
Theodore Roethke’s ‘My Papa’s Waltz’

Trochaic trimeter poem where last couplet holds much significance in psychological thought
Mary Coleridge’s ‘Eyes’

Grecian Urn; a depiction of a man chasing a woman; art and mortality
John Keats’ ‘Ode to a ________ ___’
what does he describe on the subject?
Discusses?

The hidden genius, talent, and characteristics of unknown past generations; educational opportunities like his generation; a graveyard
‘Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard’ Thomas Gray
Discusses what?
What does speaker think the addressed should have had?
Where is the speaker at?

Sonnet; speaker makes several comparisons of himself to things that are ending (day, season, fire) to tell his lover that he will not always last, which should make their love even stronger
Willy Shake’s ‘That Time of the Year Thou Mayest In Me Behold’ is what?

Death; makes fun of death by saying how transient and non-powerful it is
John Donne’s ‘_______, Be Not Proud’

Coy Mistress; telling lover that if he had enough time and space he’d take her everywhere and focus on her forever, but time will destroy them both unless they seize the day/ become united
Andrew Marvell’s ‘To His ___ _________’

Imagism poem about the linkage between a boy and his horse, part of another, unseen world
DH Lawrence’s ‘The White Horse’

13; Blackbird; snowy mountains; 3 blackbirds in a tree/ traditional family/ arguing entities; pantomime; 1; 1; innuendos; just after; icicles; women (blackbirds); golden birds (perfect women); accents and rhythms; periphery vision; green light; brothelwomen; Connecticut; shadow of baggage (looked like blackbird); river; cedar; snow
Wallace Steven’s ‘__ Ways of Looking at a _________’
1. Blackbird in what?
2. Undecided mind compared to what?
3. Blackbird in wind is part of what?
4. Man+woman= __
Man+woman+blackbird+__
5. Inflections or what?
Blackbird whistling or what?
6. What are monstrous on window?
7. Thin men of Hadden should focus on what? Instead of what?
8. Knows what?
9. Blackbird leaves what?
10. Blackbirds in what scare who?
11. Man going where? Sees what?
12. Blackbird is flying, ______ is moving
13. Blackbird in _____, it was going to what?

Talks about two different men coming together to fix a wall, one mischievous newer generational man and an older, stern man; sterner ones says ‘Good fences make good neighbors’; speaker wonders why; the hunters are using dogs to look for rabbits; speaker is apple tree and neighbor is pine
Robert Frost’s ‘Mending Wall’

Talks about two seemingly identical paths and a guy that went down both and wonders if he made the right decision and if it matters; he is deluded in many ways
Robert Frost’s ‘The Road Not Taken’

Poem about a dead child and the parents struggling to deal with this; the mother is more liberal in claim than the father, who wants to return everything to normal
Home Burial by Robert Frost

Speaker in a dream picked too many apples and many spoiled; extended metaphor to life and taking on too many things at once to be better
After the Apple-Picking by Robert Frost

A lengthy, ironically childish-sounding poem about a woman who has rejected the image of her late father and ex-husband to rid of their lasting influence; compares them to Nazis
Sylvia Plath’s Daddy

Speaking meter and word sounds
What does Alexander Pope use effectively in his poem “An Essay on Criticism”

Describes love as immortal, going past death and age and the end of the world; speaks at a wedding ceremony; uses repetition, speaking meter, word sounds
Shakespeare’s Sonnet 116

Rushed, compacted, ‘patriotic’ parody of the hard patriotic man, throwing different American phrases and maxims together to create a scene; uses almost no punctuation
EE Cumming’s poem

Oddly un-narrative poem about the bringing of something human/artificial into a natural setting and how the two personified concepts interact; repetition of words, sounds creates tone; jar is made to seem everywhere, and wild yields to it
Anecdote of the Jar by Wallace Stevens

Meter, sharp diction, punctuation, repetition create sense of beating; describes a gang who has gotten caught up in the moment and will die soon; pattern of 8s
We Real Cool by Gwendolyn Brooks

Soothing, slow, soft poem with child-like diction/imagery contrasting with the death and burial of the child
Upon a Child that Died by Robert Herrick

Poem that hashes together the many negative phrases of poem to express its controlling/negative/corrupting factors
Money by Dana Gioia

Metaphor of ‘pure’, stripped down mind to a bat beating about a cave, using instinct to get about; in end, says that making mistakes improves our surroundings (the cave)
Mind by Richard Wilbur

Tenor; vehicle
Metaphor relies on two things:
The abstraction/unrelatable/unmoving part
The relatable/moving/ compared part