Introduction : Code-Switching has been broadly recognized by

Introduction :

     Code-Switching  has been broadly recognized by scholars,
researchers and teachers as one of the most challenging aspects that determine
the level of students achievements in learning EFL. Code-Switching has become
quite popular in the process of learning English as a foreign language. It is
not only students who code-switch their speech during English lessons and their
daily life conversations, but also teachers do that for some reasons. First,
when they find that students unable to understand something in English, they
find themselves in a need to code-switch their speech to explain it to them
using their L1. Second, the teacher himself might be unable to explain the
meaning of a word or a sentence in English, so he also explain it by using L1.
Furthermore, teacher might code-switch their speech unintentionally for that
they are used to speak using their L1 during their daily lives. It’s undeniable
that code-switching especially when explaining the instruction has positive
impacts on students’ understanding for that they will be able to know what they
have to do or how they will go through the tasks, activities, or even projects,
but it also has negative impacts for that students will get used to receive
those instructions in L1 which will affect their progress in learning English.


Research questions :

the use of L1 have negative effects on SS learning?

we need to prevent or welcome the use of L1 in EFL classes?


Literature review :

is a popular  phenomenon in bilingual
speeches, and for that it is not something unexpected that a great deal of
researches on bilingualism investigate in this field. Most researchers, who
have emerged to investigate the term code-switching, are interested in both the
discourse functions and sociological interpretation, for instance, the socio-pragmatic
concept of code-switching. As a result, linguists who are not in the field of bilingualism
often mix the idea that research in code-switching are totally related to
sociolinguistic research. It is as of interest point to investigate that when
and why a speaker chooses one linguistic variety rather than another: it can be
demonstrate by stylistic or metaphorical motivation, where factors such as the
interlocutor, social role, domain, topic, venue, medium, and type of
interaction play an important role. In this case, language alternation can also
serve as a conversational cue, expressing attitudes towards language or marking
linguistic identity (cf. TabouretKeller 1995, Auer (ed.) 1998).

     For the point that multilingualism has been
taken place since antiquity, it is still just in the past two decades that
scholars, researchers and also investigators have concerned more with the
significance of the multi-lingual’s succession throughout languages. A huge
number of those researches have been interested in the term ” sociolinguistic
parameters of code-switching ” , by demonstrating in details the
circumstances in which each language has been taken. (vide e.g. Rubin, 1962;
Ervin-Tripp, 1964; Gumperez, 1964; 1970; Blom & Gumperz, 1972; Gumperz
-Chavez, 1972; Hymes, 1972). Looking at the earliest studies
which attend to consider some basics such as setting, topic, and participants
which were improbable to change within the term “turn of speech”, much less a
sentence, the grammatical parameters of code-switching were largely ignored.
Consequently as late as 1975 we find in the-literature such a statement as:

variety found in these sixteen citations suggests that there are perhaps no
syntactic restrictions on where switching can occur …

1J75: 143).

          Nowadays, concomitant with the
interest in stylistic functions of code-switching (vide e.g. Gumperz, 1970;
Blom & Gumperz, 1972; Gumperz & Hernandez-Chavez, 1972; McClure &
Wentz, 1975; Wentz, 1976) which may allow the intrasentential of code-switching
(vide e.g. Annamalai, 1971; Gumperz & Hernandez-Chavez, 1972; Gingras,
1974; Kachru, 1975; Wentz s McClure, 1976a; Wentz, 1976; Pfaff, 1976; Sridhar,
1978). consequently a fundamental data base is improving on both the nominal
and practical concepts of code-switching. Furthermore, a gap is still there.
Unfortunately a few were written about code-switching among young students.
This action research is also investigating this topic. Both linguistic and
sociolinguistic parameters of code-switching will be considered. Data analysis
will be based on tape recordings of students ranging from the age 10 to age 17.
Complete verbal transcripts of ninety hours of tape were situationally
annotated and divided into conversations and turns of speaking. Those
containing code switches were examined for communicative intent and grammatical


The Plan for Action


Participants :   the study will be
performed with an 8th ,  9th  , and 10th students and
their teachers, as the main focus. During this study 80 randomly chosen
students and also 40  teachers will be
involved in the study. This study is planned to take 5 weeks of the 2018-2019
school year.

Setting : this study will be taken place only in school, during school hours.

Assessments ( materials ) :
data will be collected by making interviews with both teachers and students at
the end of each week. At the end of each week, they’ll be asked to give their
reflection on the previous week to see if the method used was helpful or not,
and if it’s not, then what makes it unhelpful for them. Another method will be
taken into account is observation throughout using a tape recording.


Procedures/Data Collection Process :

80 students and 40 teachers will be involved in this study. Classes
will be divided into two groups; the first group -which consist of 40 students
and 20 teachers- will be allowed to code-switch their speech during EFL
classes, so that it will help us to decide if it’s beneficial for learning or
not. The second group –which consist of 40 students and 20 teachers- will be
very limited to code-switch their speech for that we will be able to see the
impact of following such a method. Both groups will also be divided into 5
group; each group consists of 8 students and 4 teacher. At the end of each
week, an interview with students and teachers will be done. The aim of this
interviews is to ask them some questions in order to collect the required
information, so that it’s going to able to elicit the negative impacts of code-switching
in EFL classrooms.

1th week : 8 students and 4 teachers (the first group of
the first group) will be asked to give their impressions about code-switching during
English classes. They will also be asked to tell the negative sides of it, and
why it’s helpful or unhelpful from their perspective.

2th week : 8 students and 4 teachers : (the second group of the first group)

3th week : 8 students and 4 teachers : (the third group of the first group)

4th week : 8 students and 4 teachers : (the fourth group of the second group) will also be asked to give
their opinion about code-switching during English classes. They will be asked
to tell whether if it’s helpful for them not to code-switch their speech during
the learning process or not.

5th week : 8 students and 4 teachers : (the fifth group of the second group)

of the other groups will be asked the same questions as the first group and the
second group. During those five weeks all classes will be video recorded, so
that they will be observed after finishing up each class.



Data analysis

the analysis of the data have been collected throughout the interviews and the
observation of the tape records:

Qualitative data will be analyzed by following this steps : First,
organizing the data (Hyper Transcribe software), translating the data
(Systran), cleaning the data, and labeling the data collected. Second, identifying
a framework which means coding plane. Third, sorting data into a framework.
Finally, using the framework in descriptive analysis.

References :

–     Aranoff, M. And
Rees-Miller. J, The handbook of Linguistics. Blackwell publisher:   Oxford. 2003.

–     Auer, Peter (ed.)
(1998): Code-switching in Conversation. Language, Interaction and Identity.
London/New York: Routledge.

–     Auer, Peter (1998):
“Introduction: Bilingual Conversation revisited”. In: Auer (ed.), 1-24.

–     Annamalai, E. 1971.
Lexical insertion in a mixed language. In: Papers from the seventh regional
meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago, Chicago Linguistic Society.

–     Blom, J. P. and 4.
Gumperz. 1972. Social meaning in linguistic structures:code-switching in
Norway. In: Directions in sociolinguistics. Edited by J. Gumperz and Hymes. New
York, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

–     Ervin-Tripp, S. 1964. An
analysis of the interaction of language, topic and listener. In: The
ethnography of communication. Edited by J. Gumperz and D. Hymes. American
Anthropologist 66.6 (II) 86-102.

–     Gingras, R. 1974.
Problems in the description of Spanish-English intrasentential code-switching.
In: Southwest areal linguistics. Edited by G. Bills. San Diego, Institute for
Cultural Pluralism.

–     Gumperz, J. 1964. Linguistic
and social interaction in two communities. In: The ethnography of
communication. Edited by J. Gumperz and D. Hymes. American Anthropologist 66.6
(II). 137-154.

–     HARMER, J. (2001). The
practice of English language teaching. Essex, England,          Longman.

–     Hymes, D. 1972. Models
of the interaction of language and social life. In: Directions in
Sociolinguistics. Edited by J. Gumperz and D. Hymes, New York, Holt, Rinehart,
and Winston.

–     Kachru, B. 1975. Toward
structuring the form and function of code mixing: an Indian perspective.
Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 5.1. Department of Linguistics, University
of Illinois at Urbana.

–     Lance, D. 1975.
Spanish-English code-switching. In: El lenguaje de los Chicanos. Edited by E.
Herngndez-Chavez, A. Cohen and A. Beltramo. Arlington, Virginia, Center for
Applied Linguistics.

–     McClure, E. and J.
Wentz. 1975. Functions of code-switching among Mexican-American children. In:
Papers from the parasession on functionalism. Chicago, Chicago Linguistic

–     McClure, E. and M.
McClure. 1975. Code-Switching among Mexican American children. In: From meaning
to sound. Edited by H. Sharifi. Lincoln, Nebraska, University of Nebraska.

–     Pfaff, 1976. Functional
and structural constraints on syntactic variation in code-switching. In: Papers
from the parasession on diachronic syntax. Chicago, Chicago Linguistic Society.

–     Rubin, J. 1962.
Bilingualism in Paraguay. Anthropological Linguistics 4 (1): 52-58.

–     Sridhar, S. 1978. On the
functions of code-mixing in Kannada. To appear in IJSL.

–     Tabouret-Keller, Andrée
(1995): “Conclusion: code-switching research as a theoretical challenge”. In:
Milroy/Muysken (eds.), 344-355.

–     Wentz, J. 1976.
Considerations in the development of a syntactic des cription of
code-switching. University of Illinois Ph.D. dis sertation – first draft.