# Introduction: force on an object, then the acceleration

Introduction: Roads are much more dangerous than we think,Car safety features nowadays are the only things giving us the chance ofsurviving a crash. The first practical and modern automobile was invented in1985 by Karl Benz as a means of easy transportation in the near future. Karl’sinvention and imagination now became a reality, cars are used by everyone everywhereand is the number one choice of transportation in 2017. Even though Karl’s ideawas spectacular, many flaws occurred as we as a race developed and more cars werebeing produced.

Problems such as deadly, life threatening accidents began tooccur which is what caused us to create car safety features to prevent the passingof more people due to cars. These new and improved “Car safety features” werecreated/introduced using Isaac Newton’s three laws of physics.  Newton’s three laws of motion:             Newton’s first law also known asInertia is the disability of an object to change its status of motion on itsown (more mass à more Inertia), thus meaning that when there is no netforce the object is at rest and will stay at rest, and if the object is movingwith a constant velocity if will stay moving with a constant velocity.

Newton’ssecond law states that when there is a net force on an object, then theacceleration of that object is directly proportional () to the net force. So, “as the force acting upon an object is increased, the acceleration of theobject is increased. As the mass of an object is increased, the acceleration ofthe object is decreased.

” (physicsclassroom) consequently, à concluding that  and . His second law in terms of the amount of motion also known as momentum() shows that (. The change in momentum is known as Impulse, it can be concluded that  and calculated using the equationof Finally, Isaac Newton’s thirdlaw explains that when object 1 exerts a force on object2, object 2 will exert an equal and opposite force on 1, summarised as for every actionforce there is a reaction force equal and opposite to the action force (FAB = -FBA) as shown in illustration 1.0. Thesethree laws are simple but are implicated and play a big role in car safety features. Moving objects such as cars have kineticenergy while in motion which we all know cannot be produced or destroyed, asthe vehicle brakes, that energy transforms into heat energy which are transferredto the surroundings of that vehicle by the brakes.

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Cars nowadays have manyfeatures that absorb that energy, minimizing the impact of the collision duringan accident to insure human safety. These modern safety features normallyinclude airbags, seatbelts and even crumple zones.      Car safety features: Airbags:            Airbags relate to Newton’s first law of how when an object is in motion,it stays in motion until it is acted upon with an unbalanced force .Airbags are one of the safety features implemented all around a vehicle butmost importantly in the steering wheel and the front passenger dashboard. Duringa collision, the driver tends to hit the steering wheel, the front passengerhits the dashboard while the passengers in the back hit the seats. The airbagsare placed/designed to cushion the impact and prevent the passengers fromhitting their heads and causing damage to the brain or skull, as soon asthe airbags react to the force produced from the collision, it willinflate itself, preventing the passengers and driver from hitting anything infront of them. The airbags act as the unbalanced force usedto distribute the persons inertia decreasing the impact on the human body. Althoughairbags are very useful, they don’t prevent injuries from happening, forexample if the collision was from the side of the car, airbags wouldn’t begreat help as they are mostly in the front making them pointless.

They do notprevent you from getting thrown out of the windshield or being hit by the car.These are some reasons we also encourage the use of the second safety feature;seatbelts.             Seatbelts:              It is illegal all-around the worldnowadays to not wear your seat belt while in a vehicle, seatbelts are extremelycommon and important found almost in every movable vehicle especially cars andplanes.

The 48mm in width typical seatbelt is manufactured using a softmaterial such as polyester webbing, polyester webbing is used to prevent theseatbelt from causing any cuts or major injuries when coming in contact withthe human body under high speeds and forces. Seatbelts are attached to the carsframe, this is to insure the humans stable place as one with the seat, duringcollision, the seatbelt will prevent the human from hiqtting their head andexiting through the windshield. Seatbelts are retractable as they can be easilyshifted, however, during an emergency brake, the seatbelts lock holding theperson tight which relate to Newton’s law of Inertia (). Seatbelts are in cars to the effects of Inertia. If the car was moving80km/h and comes into contact with another car, the person would strike intothe windshield because of Newton’s first law where an object that is in motionwill remain in motion until an unbalanced force is exerted on it, when the carcollides, your body will continue traveling at a constant speed until youstrike the dashboard or windshield (more mass à more Inertia). Thus, theseatbelt is that unbalanced force that holds the person down protecting themfrom their own Inertia.

Newton’ssecond law of forces depicts that of seatbelts, the proper use of a seatbelt reduces the external force of an accident and disperses the initialinertia of the collision across the body. Without a seat belt, thepassenger’s acceleration combined with the car’s deceleration, increases thetotal acceleration. When this acceleration is being multiplied by a very largemass, even a small change in acceleration results in a large increase in theforce being applied to the body of the human.

Crumplezones:             The third major safety feature incars nowadays are crumple zones, crumple zones work according to the two laws(law of Inertia and Newton’s second law). They are placed on both front andback of the car and are made to deform during collision, they absorb the impactenergy developed during the crash allowing less energy to be placed on thepassengers. While the front and back of the cars are made to deform in order toincrease the time taken for the automobile to come to a stop (longer time takento stop = less Inertia and momentum), the frame of the car where the passengersare seated is made out of high strength steal and many support beams.    Before these applications were discovered, avast majority of accidents lead to death due the lack of safety features in thecar or automobile.

For instance, without seatbelts, the passengers would continuemoving even after the car stops suddenly leading to many injuries. Withoutairbags car crashed lead to breakage to the skull and even rupture to the brainleading to death. Before crumple zones, most of the force of the accident wouldbe directed/passed onto the passengers leading to more injuries and even death.            Benefits and limitations of safety automobile features:             As most things, car safety featureshave its benefits and limitations. Advantages being that many lives are savedeveryday due airbags, seatbelts and crumple zones.

In 2006 alone, 15,000 peoplewere saved because of seatbelt usage, seatbelts prevent drivers from gettingdischarged out of their seats during an incident, now statistics show that morethan 75% of drivers not wearing seatbelts were killed. Airbags have proven tosave many life’s and in fact even withthe protection of seatbelts and crumple zones in the event of a crash, thechance of surviving a serious crash with airbags increase significantly.Although there areadvantages of car safety features, there are also disadvantages, some beingthat; airbags are designed to protect but in some cases the deployment of theairbags can severely injure the passengers who may be improperly positioned.Airbags can be most harmful to children and infants as the force of the deployment may be too strong forthem causing very severe injuries and even death. Seatbelts in many cases cancause serious damage to internal organs like tearing of the colon or diaphragm.

In some cases, the lumbar vertebrae may even be fractured or dislocated. Onemajor disadvantage of the crumple zones is that the automobile may very well beno longer