An organizations or
companies ultimate aim will be making profits. For this to be done effective
planning of resources and like materials labour and technology should be
implemented. This planning to achieve maximum net profits with minimum resources
is called operations management. Therefore operations management involves
proper planning of the utilization of resources. Operations management includes
various steps like production scheduling, inventory management, supply chain
and logistics management etc. Production scheduling is one of the important factors
to be considered during operations management because if the production
scheduling is not done right all the other related managerial tasks like
inventory and supply chain management cannot be done in time. Production scheduling is the planning and
allocation of jobs at correct time to meet the requirements like promised
delivery time to the customer or to meet the demand of the products in the
market. This involves deciding the amount of work force needed, raw materials
to be supplied, manufacturing plants to be utilised, technology to be
implemented, and working hours to meet the production requirement on time.
an example of a manufacturing company which produces winter cloths. The demand
for winter cloths increases in the period of November to march an during the
other months of the year these clothes are not in demand. Knowing the increase
in demand over this period and less sales during the other times of the year an
operations manager should schedule the production accordingly. To meet the
increased demand the manufacturers can produce required clothes during the low
time of the year and stock up the products and also closer to the demand time
the production can be increased.
effective scheduling can be divided as two parts like what is happening inside
the company and what happens outside. Inside the company an effective
scheduling refers to the efficiency in using the available resources and how
the work force is engaged in using the resources. This can ensure improved
capacity of the plant and maximum profit. Outside the company scheduling should
be done such that the deliveries are made on time and and the logistics are run
properly. This would result in an increased customer satisfaction and in turn
more demand for the goods.
by implementing a proper scheduling a company can plan and allocate resources
properly and efficiently on proper timing to ensure maximum profits. Proper
scheduling can also ensure reduced costs and timely deliveries of the goods.
The demand requirements are met on time by calculating the demands well ahead
of time to ensure resources are available and production is done on time. This
can be done manually by a good operations manager from his experience level or
can be calculated with help of some software. As manual calculations can take a
lot of time to be done larger companies always prefer these predictions of the
demands to be done using software.
For selecting a schedule the performance
measures are to be identified. To achieve
the goals of an organisation the scheduling should agree with the managerial
concepts of the performance measures. The common performance measures
implemented in operation scheduling are job flow time, makes pan, past due,
work in process inventory, total inventory and utilization. These performance measures
are often inter related.
The amount of time invested in
doing a job is k own as the job time. This includes moving time between operations, waiting time
for machines or work orders, process times and delays resulting from machine
breakdowns , component unavailability etc. Make span is the total time required
to complete a batch of jobs. Past due is the measure of time by which a job
missed its deadline. Work in process inventory is the list of any objects on
the make line or is in the process of being done and the total inventories is
the sum of scheduled jobs and on hand jobs. Utilization is the percentage of
work hours effectively used by the resources.
Objectives of operations scheduling
The major objectives of operation scheduling are making maximum use of the
labour and equipment’s. It also includes making maximum profit, increasing
output and improving the sevice level. Other objectives are meeting delivery
times, minimizing inventory, reducing manufacturing time, minimizing production
cost, minimizing the worker costs, allocation of resources and making maximum use
of plant at minimum possible cost.
Types of scheduling
Two different types of scheduling are forward scheduling and backward
scheduling. In forward operations scheduling all the tasks in a jobs are
scheduled from the date when order is made. The first task of the job is scheduled
and the subsequent tasks are scheduled on the scheduled completion of first
task. Accordingly all the tasks are scheduled. In backwards operations
scheduling the operations are planned backwards from the planned delivery date.
Here the last activity is scheduled first and the time of start of last task is
considered as the time to end the previous task.