INTRODUCTION”You cannot run fasterthen a bullet.
In any country there must be people who have to die. They aresacrifices any nation has to make to achieve law and order. Sometimes peoplemake mistake the way I talk for what I am thinking”- GeneralIdi Amin Dada – 1. Accordingto the Oxford Dictionary, leader is a person who leads or commands a group ofpeople, an organization, or a country. Throughout history, there were manyleaders who lead their nation or empire. Under military perspective, definitionof military leadership is the process of influencing others to accomplish themission by providing purpose, direction, and motivation. Command is the authorityin the military service, low fully exercises over subordinate by write of hisrank and assignment or position.
According to Lt Col (ret) J?rg KellerAssociate Professor of Military Sociology at the Staff and Command Colleague ofthe German Armed Forces. “Military Leadership is an art, a creative activitybased on character, ability and mental power. The main purpose of this research is to highlight the leadershiptraits and quality of the most controversial leader in history of Uganda,General Idi Amin Dada. 2. The sole purpose of theimplementation of this paper is to extract, identify and analyse the leadershiptraits and style of General Idi Amin.
Themain objective is to identify and explain the chosen principle of the leader. This paperis also to expose the SOC participant in studying the nature or characteristicof a leader as a guide in Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF) environment. On the other hand, the reader can understandand adopt all the points raised in this study for future reference to be awiser and a more charismatic leader in managing and leading their organisation. 3. On a serious note, thispaper will provide an analysis to understand more detailed of the principle andtraits of controversial leader. The objective from this research paper is togive the benefit, lesson learned and recommendation as a guide to RMAFpersonnel. Therefore, it is essential for future leaders of the RMAF to studyand analyse the leadership traits of General Idi Amin Dada.
AIM 4. Theaim of this paper is to identify and study the positive and negative traits of General Idi Amin. This paper also toanalyse his leadership principles and the lessons learnt from his principles.
This paper will also include the recommendation of the leadership style thatcan be imposed and implemented in the RMAF. SCOPE 5. Thescope of this paper is as follows:a. LeaderBackground.b. ChosenPrinciple.c. PositiveTraits.
d. NegativeTraits.e. Lessons Learntin relation to the Principles chosen.
f. Conclusion.g. Recommendations.
LEADER BACKGROUND 6. Early Years. Idi Amin Dada is a member of a small Kakwa ethnicgroup. His birth date is unconfirmed, but from a few research it is estimatedat the year 1925. He was born in Koboko County in West Nile district, Uganda Heis Islam by religion. His mother is an herbalist and diviner. She raised himafter his father left them.
From our study, we can understand that a fatherlesschild can develop very little empathy or none at all. We can see this when hecame into power in 1971. He received rudimentary education. Amin joined theKing’s African Rifles (KAR), a regiment of the british Colonial Army in 1946 asan assistant cook at about the age of 21.
7. Military Service. General IdiAmin had a successful carrier in the army. He quickly rose through the ranks.
In 1949, he was deployed to Somalia to fight the Shifta rebels and later foughtwith the British during the suppression of the Mau Mau Rebellion in Kenya from1952 until 1956. Idi Amin was very good at swimming, rugby and boxing. He holdsthe title of light heavyweight boxing champion for 9 years. He became famousamong his fellow soldiers for his overzealous and cruel militaryinterrogations. General Idi Amin wasranked Effendi, highest rank possible of a Black African that was serving inthe British Army that. From our study, we can conclude that Idi Amin was acharismatic army personal.
8. Relationship with Milton Obote. After 70 years of underBritish rule, Uganda gains its independence on October 9, 1962. Milton Obotebecame the first Prime Minister.
During that time, Idi Amin was a Captain inthe Ugandan Army. Amin was very popular within the Army. Milton Obote and IdiAmin forged an alliance.
Obote used Amin to gain popularity within the army andAmin used Obote to rise up in rank. Obote and Amin made deals of smuggle ivoryand gold from Democratic Republic of the Congo and used to trade them with armsfor the army. In Febuary 1966, followingaccusation that the pair responsible for smuggling, Obote suspended the constitutionand proclaimed himself executive president. Amin meerged as a hero when Oboteused him to introduce a dictatorship. Obote sent Amin to dethrone King MuteseII, who rules the powerful kingdom of Buganda in south-central Uganda. After afew years and multiple failed attempt, Obote was threatened with assassinationsattempts. Obote began to question Amin,s loyalty and ordered his arrest. In1971, Obote left to Singapore for a Commonwelth Heads of Government Conference.
During this period, Amin used this opportunity to stage a coup to rule Uganda. 9. Eight Years of Terror. Amin promised thepeople of Uganda that he will only take over the ruling until a proper electionwas made. Unfortunately in his eight years of ruling, no election was made. Hisfirst step when he came into power is mass execution upon the Acholi and Lango,Christian tribes that had been loyal to Obote and therefore perceived them asthreat. He then created State Research Bureau (SRB) and Public Safety Unity(PSU) to identify and eliminate those who oppose his regime.
In 1972, Aminexpelled Uganda’s Asian population which is around 50000 to 70000 people. Thereason he did this because he wanted a Uganda that will be run by the Ugandacitizen. In result of the Asian Expel, the economy of Uganda collapse. WhenPopular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) hijacked Air France flighton June 27, 1976, Idi Amin welcomed the terrorist group.
Throughout his ruling,Idi Amin was responsible for roughly 300,000 civilian’s death. 10. Loses Control and Enters Exile. After 8 years and poor economicalplanning, Amin’s intimate allies downsize and formerly loyal troops began tomutiny. When some fled across the border into Tanzaniaand Idi Amin accused Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere of instigating theunrest and retaliated by annexing the Kagere Salient, a strip of territorynorth of Kagera River, in November 1978. Two weeks later, the Tanzanianmobilized a counter offensive to recapture the land, and drove the Ugandan Armyout with help of Ugandan Exile. The battled raged into Uganda and Idi Amin wasforced to flee on 11th April1979, when Kampala was captured.
Due to his good relationship with Libya’smaverick leader, Colonel Gadafy, Idi Amin sought refuge in Libya. He latermoved to Saudi Arabia where he lived comfortably until his death of multipleorgan failure in 2003. CHOSEN PRINCIPLES OF LEADERSHIP11. Leadership Principle is anaction of leading the military organization in order to accomplish missionobjectives by applying a set of fundamentals that serves as the foundation ofthe leader.
In this study and analysis, we are defining that Idi Amin is suitedwith Kurt’s Lewin Leadership style. Kurt Lewin and his colleagues had diddecision experiment on 1939 and divided into three different styles. That isAutocratic, Laissez-Faire and Democratic. 12. Autocratic Style.
Thisstyle is involving the leader make a decision without consulting others.13. Laissez-Faire Style. This style is to reduce the leader’s involvement during decisionmaking. It is allowing the follower to make decision, however theresponsibility still under the leader.14.
Democratic Style. This style is involving the leader and thefollower in making a decision but the final decision may vary from the leaderhaving the final say to them facilitating consensus in the group.15. In this study,Autocratic Style is best suited with Idi Amin. The tools will be used toanalyse it is by using SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis is an acronym forStrengths, Weaknesses, Opportunity and Threats. 16. Strength.
It is aninternal attributes and resources that support a successful outcome. Thestrength of an autocratic leadership that it is effective when decision mustcome quickly. In the case of Idi Amin, during his regime, all major decisionand final say comes from him. Whoever is reluctant or oppose him where killed,so the people were afraid and controlling government were easy. Duringstressful period, autocratic leader were more effective, and their subordinateappreciate their leadership. When Idi Amin took over Uganda, the people ofUganda were under stress of the former corrupted government of Milton Obete.When Idi Amin stage a coup, more than 2/3 of army and the people of Ugandasupported him.
17. Weaknesses. Internalattributes and resources that work against a successful outcome.
The weaknessof autocratic leadership, it invites potential abuse of overly powerfulpersonalities. During Idi Amin regime, he abuses his power of president and hetook the short way eliminating those who seem like threat to him. Anotherweaknesses of autocratic leadership is the decision making process lies on theleader shoulder. Very little or no input were given by their allies. This canlead the leader to make poor decision. During eight years in power, Idi Aminmade multiple wrong decisions but two was most significant.
First is when heexpelled the Asian Population of Uganda that cause the collapse of Ugandaeconomy. Second, when Idi Amin welcome and supported Popular Front ofLiberation Palestine (PFLP) when thei hijacked Air France from Israel to Paris.Nation of over the world condemned and criticizes Idi Amin of doing this. Aftereight years of his regime, formally trusted allies and troops downsized.
Thiscaused mutiny and eventually Idi Amin lost control.18. Opportunity. It is anexternal factor that entity can capitalize on or use to its advantage.
Inautocratic leadership, there are many room of opportunity that can be used bythe leader. A great leader is will take this opportunity into his greatestadvantage. For an instant, Idi Amin used his relationship with Milton Obete torise in power and introduce dictatorship.
When thing when south with MiltonObete, Idi Amin used Milton Obette absence into his advantage by staging a coupand taking over power in Uganda. 19. Threats.External factor that could jeopardize the entity’s success. Autocraticleadership style gives absolute power to one person.
This invites threats fromeverywhere. Idi amin had many threats, one of it is he was paranoid that thesupport for Milton Obote will outgrown him. He was also paranoid that theTanzanian President, Julius Nyerere is providing pathway or shelter for troopsthat begin mutiny and ran to Tanzania. This caused Julius Nyerere to attack andresulting Idi Amin fleeing Uganda.POSITIVETRAITS 20. Positive leadership traitsare a good personal characteristic that reflect the individual effectiveness inleading the organization. Although Idi Amin was portrayed as a brutal leader bythe western media, there are a few notable positive traits of him. Some evenbelieve that he was a hero of the Third World :a.
True Patriot and Nationalist. Idi Amin was a ruthless leader but he was also a visionary. Hewanted to create a Uganda that was fully governed by its own people. Due to thefact that Uganda was still in its early stage of independence, the foreigninfluence is still strong. Idi Amin wanted to eliminate this foreigninfluence. b.
Ambitious. Idi Amin is a very ambitious man. He came into power to eliminatethe corrupted government that was lead by Milton Obote. During this time the peoplewho were affected by the corrupted government fully supported Idi Amin.Eventhough Idi Amin didn’t receive proper education, he was a very knowable inIslamic studies due to his Islamic background.
He wanted to create a Ugandathat will be fully driven by Sharia Law. c. Opportunities. Idi Amin was very wise. When he sees an opportunity,he will use it to his advantage. He forged alliance with Milton Obote to risein power and he overthrows him when the times come.
He used the absences ofObote from Uganda to stage a coup and ruled thereafter. He also used hispopularity and influence in the army to rule Uganda.NEGATIVE TRAITS 21. Negativeleadership traits may occupied by status and might see the team members assubordinates and lesser people. These type personalities might demonstratecontrol, inflexibility, power and lack of personal skill among other negativepersonality traits, making it difficult for a team to grow.
The negative traitsthat Idi Amin shown are as follows:a. Brutality. Idi Amin was enforcing brutality duringhis regime within 8 years. Idi Amin is also known as a “The Butcher” by manypeople of Uganda. He killed about 300,000 to 500,000 people of Uganda byestablishing the secret police force called State Research Bureau (SRB) andPublic Safety Unity (PSU) to identify and eliminate those who oppose on him.Those people that Idi Amin killed were mostly anonymous people for an examplefarmers, student, clerks and shopkeepers who were shot or forced to bludgeoneach other to death.
b. Poor Decision Making. Idi Amin was a poor decision maker. During his regime he made thepoorest decision in expelling the Asian out of Uganda.
This caused the economyof Uganda to collapse. Amin launched “economic war” and wanted to createeconomic independence that was solely ruled by Uganda people. In 1972, Aminexpel 40,000 Ugandan resident of Asian origin.
These people are mostly areworkers brought by the British from the Indian subcontinent to build arailroad, were dominant in the country’s commercial life. Amin warned “If theydo not leave, they will find themselves sitting on fire”.c. Corrupted. Idi Amin welcomed and supported terrorist during his regime. It isbecause Amin was abetted with Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine –External Operation (PFLP-EO) to hijack Air France flight on June 27, 1976. The objectiveof that mission is to release 40 Palestinian.
Even though initially Idi Aminwas against the corrupted government of Milton Obote, his own government becamemore corrupted then ever. LESSONSLEARNT IN RELATION TO THE CHOSEN PRINCIPLE 22. Being a leader is ahuge responsibility. It requires wise decision making to uphold his supportfrom his people. There is no wrong in choosing to be an autocratic leader. An autocraticleader can lead a successful organization but he should be an example for hispeople.
a. Communication. A good communication is vital in running an organizationor nation. Even having absolute power, the leader should have goodcommunication skill. He should be open to inputs and advices from others.
Agood communication should be extended to his people where the leader shouldtake into consideration into the need of his people. He should pay moreattention into his peoples moral. b. Lead by example.
In our analysis, we can seethat Idi Amin made false promises to the people of Uganda. He should have holdonto his promises where he would held an election. Even if he did an election andhe stand in it, the support was there for him during that time and he mightmade it Prime Minister of Uganda. This will surely inspire his nation and theywill see him as a hero. c.
Empathy. As a leader, weshould have empathy. When we have empathy, our followers will have a hugeamount of respect and they will look up to us. In the case of Idi Amin, if hehad empathy we wouldn’t have killed almost 300 000 to 500 000 souls. He couldhave different approach that he could control them by avoiding blood bath. d. SelfConfident.
Confidently expelling the Asian togive a chance for Ugandan to run their economy. Even though this was a baddecision, Idi Amin was confident and he believed that was the best thing to dofor the future of Uganda. Idi Amin also had great amount of self confident whenhe threw out the regime of President Milton Obote. He did this because hebelieved that he was a way better leader then Obote.
e. Initiative.As a leader we should have initiative and enthusiasm. As a leader Idi Amin’sapproach on gaining the military support can be observed when he used tosmuggle ivory and gold to trade with weapon for the military. f. Visionary.To be a successful leader, being a visionary is very crucial.
Idi Amin was avery good visionary, he build up good relation with Obete and climb up theladder in his military career. He also had a vision on building a better Ugandathat was fully driven by its own people.g. Integrity.From our study, we can derive that as a leader, integrity plays a huge role. Inportraying integrity, followers will look up and be inspired by the leader.
IdiAmin failed to do so when he didn’t deliver his promise on organizing a generalelection. h. Understandingyour people. In achieving success in leadership, itis important to understand the needs of the people. We should push ourfollowers to great success but in the same time, we should consider their needsand we need to identify their moral state. Idi Amin knows that the people ofUganda were oppressed during the British regime, so his plan to uphold theirright and needs became an important part in taking control of Uganda. i. Tact.
Tact is the skill and sensitivity indealing with others or with difficult issues. Being a leader we should havetact and in having it we can approach and deal with situation in a way betterway then what Idi Amin did. Idi Amin should have a different or better approachin solving the problem within the Ugandan people. 23.
It is not a sin or a mistakebeing an autocratic leader, at desperate and difficult times we need anautocratic leader to control and contain the situation. There are lots of waysto abuse power but if the leader has lots of moral value and good character,followers will be inspired and the leader will emerge as a hero.CONCLUSION 24. Theautocratic leadership that was portrayed by General Idi Amin Dada was brutaland heartless, but there are also a few good characteristic portrayed by himduring his military carrier and starting of his time in as the President ofUganda.
Based on our study analysis, we can conclude that autocratic leadershipis one of the best leadership traits but it should be lead by a leader that isnear perfect. The leader should have high moral value and huge amount ofconsideration over his followers.