Introduction There has been a blast of interest

Introduction

There
has been a blast of interest in leadership. There are many stories which come
up in the daily newspaper discussing examples of effective leadership and also
the notable failure of leadership. Sometimes these stories concern world-class
politicians and governors, CEO officers of businesses, executives of the
government and so on. Leadership is possibly amongst the most important aspects
of management (Weihrich et al, 2008) and this is due to the fact that
leadership is a significant factor which contributes immensely to the overall wellbeing
of organizations and countries. There are different styles of leadership which
are as follows: Laissez-faire, Autocratic, Participative, Transformational and
transactional leadership however in this article, the main focus will be on
transformational leadership and whether its’ advantages outweigh the risks.

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Two
of the most leading leadership theories are transformational and transactional
leadership theories. Since the 1980’s theories of transformational and
charismatic leadership have been ascendant. Transformational leadership
versions have been proposed by different scholars, including Bass (1985). Many
authors concur that transactional and transformational leadership are
distinctive ideas and in practice, many authors presume that transformational
leadership remarkable expands transactional leadership which gives rise to high
level of a person, group and organizational performance (Bass and Avoilo,
1994). Regardless, some others think that transactional leadership is a subset
of transformational leadership (Weihrich et al, 2008). As indicated by Bass,
these leadership styles are not the model of opposite ends of a specific field,
he also mentioned that transactional and transformational leadership are not
equivalent ideas. After Bass’ intensive research in this area, the results that
were noted were that there are three dimensions of transactional whereas there
are four dimensions of transactional leadership and a nonleadership dimension
(Timothy, 2014).

 

Transformational
leadership

Transformational
leadership according to bass is when a leader turns his/her objectives far from
individual interests and security towards accomplishment and self-actualization
(Weibler, 2004). Apart from a leader being a role model, he/she urges the
followers to challenge the current order, the revolutionary being a distinctive
example of this. With the leader having the democratic motives in mind he/she
can assume a transaction leadership style at the same time that is, guiding the
followers to get things done (Bass, 1985). Burns (1987) defines transforming
leadership as a kind of leadership which arises when at least one person
engages with others in a way that ‘leaders and followers raise one another to
higher levels of motivation and morality’ (p.20). Therefore, the essential tasks
of transformational leaders are to raise the understanding and awareness of
their followers to more elevated stages of behaviour and virtue (Mulla and
Krishman, 2009). Simonla et al (2012) explained transformational leadership as
a kind of leadership in which communications among people are built ‘around a
collective purpose’ in a way that ‘transform, motivate and enhance the actions
and ethical aspiration of followers’. It can be inferred that our behaviour is
coordinated by the basic system of moral values so that transformational
leadership can be viewed as a leadership style that prompts good
transformations and changes of the followers through the effect of the
structure of the organization (Jovanovica and Ciricb, 2016).

 

Bass
and Avoilo (1997) went further to refine Bass theory of transformational
leadership by viewing this type of leadership as an expansion of transactional
leadership with the employment of the Four I’s dimension which can be seen
below in figure 1.1

 (CULCGOODA, 2014)

The
first dimension is an idealized influence. This is depicted as a behaviour that
outcomes in follower appreciation. It includes risk sharing with respect to
leaders, a thought of followers need over own needs and ethical conduct. The
second dimension is inspirational motivation. This characteristic is reflected
in conduct that gives significance and trial to followers’ work. It includes
behaviours that express clear assumption showing commitment regarding general
organizational objectives. Also, team spirit is aroused by passion and
confidence. Leaders who have inspirational motivation challenge followers with
high expectations, express enthusiasm about future objectives and give
importance to the job that needs to be done. Followers should have a solid
sense of purpose when they are moved to act. Purpose and importance gives the
strength that drives a team ahead. The visionary parts of leadership are upheld
by communication abilities that make vision reasonable, specific, intense and
engaging. Generally, inspirational motivation comprises of idealistic talking
about the future, passionate speaking about what should be done, expressing a
good point of view of the future, showing the certainty to the fact that the
objectives will be met, drawing a picture of what ought to be considered, and
undertaking challenging issues (Moghali 2003, p.70). Intellectual stimulation
is the third dimension. Leaders demonstrating this kind of characteristic seek
new thoughts and creative solutions from their followers, as well as permit different
and unique ways to deal with work performances. They sustain and develop
individuals who think independently. For such a leader, learning is seen as a
value and unforeseen circumstances are viewed as opportunities to gain
knowledge. The last dimension is an individualized consideration. This is when
leaders listen carefully and pay close attention to their followers’
accomplishment and improvement needs. He/she gives compassion and assistance,
permit wide communication and places challenges before the followers. This
likewise incorporates the need for respect and celebrates the personal
contribution that each follower can offer to the team. The followers have the
will and passion for self-development and inherent motivation for their works. By
explaining the characteristic of transformational leadership Burns then went
further to define this type of leadership as a moral leadership. Yuki (2002)
mentioned that mainly those individuals who appeal to the high standards, moral
esteems and necessities of followers can be called transformational leaders (Jovanovica
and Ciricb, 2016).

 

One
good example of a transformational leader is Colin Marshall who changed British
airways from a weak organization into the worlds’ favourite airline in the
1980’s. He was able to make this happen by welcoming the opinions and concerns
of the people inside and outside BA environment to have an idea of what company
values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour required to develop and replace for BA
to become successful. He then looked at his findings to show the broad
improvements (Heifetz and Laurie, The work of leadership in Harvard business
School Review, 1998). Relating this to the characteristics of transformational
leadership, it shows that Colin Marshall made good use of the second dimension
which is inspirational motivation (Michael, 2007). Another great
transformational leader is Jack Welch who was the former CEO of the U.S General
Electric (GE) Corporation, whose change of GE led to the improvement of a
productive global player possessing top markets spots in a lot of its’ business
(Morden, 2017). He emphasized that leaders need to be very interactive with
their staffs and it is important to make sure that people do not just see the
vision but they should use it. Gene Kranz from the Apollo 13 movie in a
‘failure is not an option scene, shows another example of a good leader who
possess great listening ears and close attention to his followers and with
this, there was great team spirit generated. He showed the third dimension of
intellectual stimulation which means that he took ideas and opinions from his
followers before making a final decision. The last example will be about the
late Nelson Mandela who fought for South Africa’s freedom. Mandela introduced
an example of reconciliation and vision for his countrymen and later let them
know that he required them to live up to it (Schoemaker, 2017). He was ready to
make ANC members and his followers understand that their sacrifices and choices
would lead South Africa to ‘freedom’ (Mansa-Owusu, 2017). Mandela was prepared
to articulate his vision of a bright nation and united the entire nation of
black and white behind the realization of his vision.

 

There
are positive effects that a transformational leadership can have on his/her
followers. Transformational leadership influences subordinate job satisfaction
(Al-hussami, 2008; Korkmaz, 2007). Al-hussami (2008) researched the connection
between transformational leadership and job satisfaction and discovered that
transformational leadership connects absolutely with job satisfaction and it is
a predictor of job satisfaction. Nursing staffs working in Florida nursing
homes were observed to be happier working with transformational leaders and the
more a leader perceived the principal as showing transformational leadership
behaviours, the higher the teacher’s job satisfaction level. It is important
for every organization to train their employees if it wants effective results. Having
transformational leaders accountable for corporate learning can help to enhance
the outcomes of current employees and prepare new employees for productive
work. A transformational leader brings expanded effectiveness to staffs when
he/she takes part in corporate learning and this can have a distinct advantage
for any organization. According to different authors, transformational leaders
are especially great and culture building, giving intellectual stimulation and
individual help, displaying positive behaviours, vision-building, and holding
superior achievement expectations for employees. Transformational leadership is
essentially interactive. Leaders and followers achieve a high level of
connection from which they can accomplish the desired changes (Burn, 1978).

Transformational leaders endeavour to sustain the best in their employee and
work-groups by demonstrating genuine interest and regard for people. Leaders
develop an organizational culture of joint effort in light of values such as
honesty and integrity. Transformational leaders improve innovation within the
organization. To make it possible for organizations to change, it is important
for leaders to make use of inspirational motivation and intellectual
stimulation (Elkins and Keller, 2003). They may also create specific parts of
the framework process like conflict settlement, group communication and union
(Donnie et al, 2004). For instance, a leader who has a consideration behaviour
improves the official and non-official communication paths among team members,
while a leader with transactional behaviour produces just tight and official
communication. Hence, transformational leadership may enhance relational
connections among team members and make better performance accomplishment
(Yusuf et al, 2017).

 

There
are wide examples and advantages of transformational leadership, however, it
also has its’ risks. Misuse of influence could be a big issue for organizations
using transformational leaders. Transformational leadership is strong yet not
used morally every time. In spite of the fact that times of Nelson Mandela and
Martin Luther King Jr are frequently connected with the term transformational
leadership but not all who motivate and empower fit the definition. Adolph
Hitler and Osama Bin Ladin are examples of ‘pseudo-transformational’ leaders. The
term ”pseudo-transformational’ has been introduced to unite leaders who show
transformational behaviours but satisfy their personal self-interest first (Bass
and Riggio, 2006). Genuine transformational leadership involves moral,
benefits, character a guarantee to the benefit of all (Travis, 2017). By
organizing an environment made up of workers working towards a mutual vision,
transformational leaders motivate their subordinates by leading with energy.

Showing your followers how different groups gain success tends to influence
your team members as well as urge them to make the dedication needed towards a
vital objective. Presenting a positive perspective on the future, your
followers have the tendency to react with power. Efficiency increases. However,
team members can lose inspiration if outrageous deadlines continue for long
period time (Duggan, 2017). Transformational leadership can also be time-consuming.

The leaders must put in time and vitality to building trust and persuading
followers to trust in a common vision. By having a transformational leader,
some organizations wanting to gain fast results tend to be frustrated because
of how long it would take to convince and motivate employees (Travis, 2017). Follower
dependency is another risk of transformational leadership. Some previous
literature referred to it as the most elementary side effect of high transformational
leadership. Basu and Green (1997) discussed that transformational leaders may
control followers’ critical and non-conformal perspectives and thoughts that
differ from their own, whereby causing follower dependency and reducing
innovativeness.

 

Tourish
and Pinnigton (2002) mentioned that transformational leadership characteristics
are closely linked to that of the traits of cultism which can be seen in
Appendix A. A principle definition given by the premier research defines a cult
as ‘A group or movement exhibiting great or excessive devotion to some person,
idea or thing, and employing unethical manipulative or coercive techniques of
persuasion and control . . . designed to advance the goals of the group’s
leaders, to the actual or possible detriment of members, their families or the
community’ (American Family Foundation, 1986: 119–20). Within cults, the
importance of leadership behaviour is routinely overstated as well. For
instance, the vast majority of a cult’s main documents are prepared by the
leader, who additionally makes the essential talks at cult meetings and is in
every way admitted to by a great passive and uncritical followership (Tourish
and Wohlforth, 2000). Such followers can strongly be penalized if they disagree
and this increases the contribution of false ideas. Regardless of the statement
made, they do not suggest that the application of transformational leadership
will automatically turn host organizations into cults, on a level with the
Moonies, Scientology or organizations like Heavens’ Gate cult, any more than
one would claim that one scene of tipsiness suddenly makes someone an
alcoholic. Nevertheless, they argued that the main characteristics or traits of
transformational leadership have the ability to move organizations more along
the cult sequence than is desirable, and this trend turns out to be marked when
transformational leadership thoughts are mixed with the drive towards improving
spirituality in the organization. Increasing spirituality in the work
environment is to proclaim that the individuals who disagree from the ideology are
not part of the environment (Tourish and Pinnigton 2002).