“Leadership is a
process by which a leader influences the thoughts, attitudes, and behaviors of
others. It is the ability to get other people to do something significant that
they might not otherwise do.” (Paper 3)
“Leadership has been convinced in
improving employees’ performance and increasing the chance to achieve
organizations’ goals, as well as increasing employees’ engagement with the
Leadership style decides the atmosphere
for the link between employee engagement and employee productivity.
Good leader having excellent leadership
skills have the ability to influence people to achieve their end results. Effective
leadership provides clear directions, increase morale of the employees, improve
decision making, etc.
Goals, activities policies, etc. of the
organizations are determined by autocratic leadership. “The leader reserves
the higher authority to make decisions and does not refer to their staff in the
organization”. A clear expectation about when, what and how the work should
be done is desired to them.
Organic leadership style includes multiple
leaders who help to manage the dynamic and diverse environment of the
It is also found that growth and sustainability
is seen in organizations which follow the organic leadership.
High levels of absenteeism and staff
turnover is due to autocratic leadership.
Democratic leadership is known as
participative style as a clear direction to group members in the organization
is offered. Employees are encouraged so that they contribute to the decision
making and allow different inputs from different group members.
Laissez-faire leadership is also
identified as the “handsoff style”. The employed are allowed to do their
jobs independently and no direction and very less information is given for the
task to be done. It leads to lowest productivity among the group members.
leader generally encourage employees to perform their task with trust and
proper engagement. Transformational leaders are capable of encouraging employee’s
to perform beyond the expectation, through meaningful engagement and trust
which is done by giving continuous attention to employee and give proper timely
feedback . Employees are encouraged to go beyond their own self-interests and
self-realization by such a leader thereby influencing them to do the right
thing & establishing a vision for the organization.
There are four
dimensions of transformational leadership: idealized influence, inspirational
motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration.
consideration is the extent to which the follower’s needs are taken care of
& listens to follower’s needs and concerns along with acting as a coach or
mentor. Intellectual stimulation is encouraging followers to be innovative and
creative. Leader should not criticize followers publicly. Inspirational
motivation is the leader providing meaning to the task at hand and
communicating optimism about future goals. Idealized influence is where leader
acts as a role model for their followers.
psychological needs of the employee are addressed by transactional leader. They
tend to use organizational rewards and punishments to improve the organization
performance. They also use organizational bureaucracy, policy, power and authority
for controlling the employees. Transactional leadership has three components:
Contingent reward, active management by exception and passive management by
looks at rewarding, elucidating expectations and providing resources which are
necessary for achieving the goal. Active management by exception is the active supervision
of the management for prevention of mistakes & correcting them. Passive
management is the interference of leaders only if the standards aren’t complied
with the actual expectations.
“Employee engagement was first defined as
the simultaneous employment and expression of a person’s preferred task
behaviors that encourage connections to work, individual existence, and full
involvement in role performances”
“An “engaged employee” is defined
as one who is fully adsorbed by and enthusiastic about their work and so takes
positive action to further the organization’s reputation and interests” (paper
Engagement also acts as an
indication that the employee has trust in values of organization and will be keen
on contributing to attain business goals.
“there are seven antecedents of employee engagement such
as job characteristics, perceived organizational and supervisor support,
rewards and recognition, distributive and procedural justice” (international)
engagement has three components: Vigor, Dedication and absorption.
Highly engaged employees willingly invest
effort in their job and also have high levels of energy without fatigue which
is termed as vigour. Dedication is when enthusiasm is felt by the employees by
fully getting involved in their work and are proud and inspired. Absorption is
when employees feel pleasant and completely immersed in the task which they are
FINDINGS & CONCLUSION:
Trust of employees on leadership
structure coupled with good relationship between employee & management are
believed to have higher engagement. Transformational, Transactional &
Organic leadership has a positive correlation with employee engagement levels.
Social relevance of work, Intellectual simulation, Motivation (for simulating
energy & increasing commitment), Psychological empowerment, individual
consideration also has a significant direct relation with engagement &
performance levels. However, Idealized influence was found to have a negative
If we compare transformational
leadership with transactional leadership on their effect on employee
engagement, it was found that transformational leadership is a better
predictor. Demographic variables like gender, age, experience, position,
sectors & industries were also found to be leading determinant of employee
Organic leadership affects employee
engagement by creating perception of social relevance of work
sense of belongingness and the
answerability among the employees is achieved by employee engagement and an
appropriate leadership style.
LIMITATIONS & SCOPE:
However, it was observed that there are a
few limitations. Common method bias may occur because of self-report measures
adopted. Also, psychological well-being as influencing mechanism has been
considered. The common limitation across all studies is the non- consideration
of change of leadership style.
Hence, the scope for further studies is
wide on exploring the impact of many other variables which have not been covered
along with the different industries which can be taken for analysis.