Learning is a form of using “new ortransform existing knowledge, skills, or behaviours, which brings in change orcomes from experience or training” (Pereira and Rodrigues, 2013 p.27). Learningoccurs ‘in a conscious or unconscious way’ through various environmentalaspects such school education, self – learning or other forms of training (Princeand Felder 2006, Leahey and Harris 1989 as cited in Pereira and Rodrigues,2013). Moore et al. (2011) define this process as the involvement of ‘at leasttwo types of actors,’ the instructor and the learner itself. The process oflearning has evolved over time, from traditional classroom learning led byteachers to the development of technology offering new ways of taking in’information and knowledge’ (TSAI 2011). With an access to the internet and anongoing development of devices, a platform has been created and while ‘qualityand flexibility’ has become an integral part of learning, it has enhanced intoa platform called electronic learning or (e-learning) (Oliveira et al.
2007).Introduced in 1990, as a new kind of learning, e-learning is a combination of’all forms of electronically supported learning or teaching’ (Yan et. Al.2010).
This involves learning through ‘interactive communication systems’making the use of modernised technology. An interactive communication system aims tohave an involvement of ‘innovative technologies’ which are obtainable bydevices like a mobile. Mobile devices such as tablets, laptops or smartphonesare just not merely ‘attractive’ devices anymore, they have changed to become a’concept’ and ‘theory’ and is what now called as Mobile learning or(m-learning). Crompton (2013) defines m-learning as “learning across multiplecontexts, through social and content interactions, using personal electronicdevices”. Even though considerations are still taken when trying to define theterm, (Khaddage, Müller and Flintoff, 2016) suggests that ‘m-learning’ islooking into ‘educator’s mobility and engagement’ without having to stay at oneplace.
It is all about a learner’s mobility and the engagement level we canbring into different learning activities without having to move much or havingto move at all. For example, “empowering a woman in India with daily audiomessages to help convert knowledge into economic gains or helping a child inNew York gather data to become a mini scientist” (UNESCO: Shuler, Winters andWest, 2013, p.7). With these examples to take into account, why do we stillview mobile learning as a negative impact on education? However, the idea of mobile learning isstill changing and perhaps a lot of considerations are to be taken when tryingto define this term. A strong point about its potential that can be made hereis that its wireless structure.
M-learning is now also being used in a lot ofdifferent environments ranging from different fields like ‘education tomedicine from industrial to business, or even multimedia and gaming’ (Pereiraand Rodrigues, 2013). The introduction of computers and ICT in schools were tobring in positive outcomes in changing the way of learning in classrooms, whichwe can agree to some extent that it has not been completely achieved. Thisessay aims to look at how mobile technology can assist in primary schoolclassrooms and its learning concept could be a successful one. Researchers likeOoms et al.
(2008), Attewell, Savill- Smith, Douche, and Parker (2010) and muchmore have conducted research and concluded that there are positive impacts ofmobile technologies in general. However, the use of it in an educationalsetting has not been well recognised. Khaddage, Lanham & Zhou (2009) arguesthat teachers in schools are still not very much open to the idea of allowingmobile devices in classrooms because of various worries like safety concernsand lack of control in student activities. As a result, (Bonk, 2009) points outthat students find lessons boring and this leads to more dropouts because, intoday’s world, students are looking for an environment that has a high level ofengagement, creativity and collaboratively. Similarly, (Knezek, Lai, Khaddage,& Baker, 2011; Khaddage, Knezek & Baker, 2012) also found that studentsdid not see any relevance in the materials provided, they felt that it lackedengagement and most of the materials were old and did not focus on what theyare to learn in the present world.