Learning place. It is all about a learner’s

Learning is a form of using “new or
transform existing knowledge, skills, or behaviours, which brings in change or
comes from experience or training” (Pereira and Rodrigues, 2013 p.27). Learning
occurs ‘in a conscious or unconscious way’ through various environmental
aspects such school education, self – learning or other forms of training (Prince
and Felder 2006, Leahey and Harris 1989 as cited in Pereira and Rodrigues,
2013). Moore et al. (2011) define this process as the involvement of ‘at least
two types of actors,’ the instructor and the learner itself. The process of
learning has evolved over time, from traditional classroom learning led by
teachers to the development of technology offering new ways of taking in
‘information and knowledge’ (TSAI 2011). With an access to the internet and an
ongoing development of devices, a platform has been created and while ‘quality
and flexibility’ has become an integral part of learning, it has enhanced into
a platform called electronic learning or (e-learning) (Oliveira et al. 2007).

Introduced in 1990, as a new kind of learning, e-learning is a combination of
‘all forms of electronically supported learning or teaching’ (Yan et. Al.

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2010). This involves learning through ‘interactive communication systems’
making the use of modernised technology.


An interactive communication system aims to
have an involvement of ‘innovative technologies’ which are obtainable by
devices like a mobile. Mobile devices such as tablets, laptops or smartphones
are just not merely ‘attractive’ devices anymore, they have changed to become a
‘concept’ and ‘theory’ and is what now called as Mobile learning or
(m-learning). Crompton (2013) defines m-learning as “learning across multiple
contexts, through social and content interactions, using personal electronic
devices”. Even though considerations are still taken when trying to define the
term, (Khaddage, Müller and Flintoff, 2016) suggests that ‘m-learning’ is
looking into ‘educator’s mobility and engagement’ without having to stay at one
place. It is all about a learner’s mobility and the engagement level we can
bring into different learning activities without having to move much or having
to move at all. For example, “empowering a woman in India with daily audio
messages to help convert knowledge into economic gains or helping a child in
New York gather data to become a mini scientist” (UNESCO: Shuler, Winters and
West, 2013, p.7). With these examples to take into account, why do we still
view mobile learning as a negative impact on education?


However, the idea of mobile learning is
still changing and perhaps a lot of considerations are to be taken when trying
to define this term. A strong point about its potential that can be made here
is that its wireless structure. M-learning is now also being used in a lot of
different environments ranging from different fields like ‘education to
medicine from industrial to business, or even multimedia and gaming’ (Pereira
and Rodrigues, 2013). The introduction of computers and ICT in schools were to
bring in positive outcomes in changing the way of learning in classrooms, which
we can agree to some extent that it has not been completely achieved. This
essay aims to look at how mobile technology can assist in primary school
classrooms and its learning concept could be a successful one. Researchers like
Ooms et al. (2008), Attewell, Savill- Smith, Douche, and Parker (2010) and much
more have conducted research and concluded that there are positive impacts of
mobile technologies in general. However, the use of it in an educational
setting has not been well recognised. Khaddage, Lanham & Zhou (2009) argues
that teachers in schools are still not very much open to the idea of allowing
mobile devices in classrooms because of various worries like safety concerns
and lack of control in student activities. As a result, (Bonk, 2009) points out
that students find lessons boring and this leads to more dropouts because, in
today’s world, students are looking for an environment that has a high level of
engagement, creativity and collaboratively. Similarly, (Knezek, Lai, Khaddage,
& Baker, 2011; Khaddage, Knezek & Baker, 2012) also found that students
did not see any relevance in the materials provided, they felt that it lacked
engagement and most of the materials were old and did not focus on what they
are to learn in the present world.