This theory supports the belief that a learner’s behaviour is shaped by feedback, positive and negative reinforcement (Light 2008).   Positive reinforcement increases the chances of an event happening again and punishment decreases the chances of an event happening again (Videbeck 2011).   Students will learn/solve a problem by trying alternative options until a correct solution or …

This For example, stopping certain drills or makingRead More »

Intercultural competence and intercultural sensitivity are sometimes mentioned interchangeably by some scholars to refer to the same thing. However, Hammer, Bennet, and Wiseman (2003) have asserted that intercultural sensitivity is the prerequisite skill for intercultural competence. In other words, intercultural competence is the behavioral manifestation of intercultural awareness and intercultural sensitivity (Peng, Rangsipaht, &Thaipakdee, 2005). …

Intercultural to understand, appreciate, and accept differences amongRead More »

CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter presents the conclusions and recommendations base on the result of the study. CONCLUSIONS The following conclusions were drawn based on the collated   findings:   1.   ICT instructional materials were not enough.   2.   Teachers lack capabilities in using technology in mathematics   Instructions.   3.   School administrator …

CHAPTER brought by ICT integration in realizing theRead More »

In this part, the researcher tries to give some explanations about the research questions. The research questions are as follow: 1. What are the specific English language needs of maritime students? 2. What language skills do maritime students need to develop in ESP? 4. What types of content, methodology and class activities do maritime students …

In followed by listening, speaking and writing areRead More »