Literary Terms Rondeau to Sturm und Drang

rondeau
lyric poem consisting of three stanzas with a total of fifteen lines; line nine and line fifteen are the same (refrain); line nine occurs at the end of the second stanza and line fifteen at the end of the third stanza; line nine and fifteen are very short and rhyme only with each other; all lines except nine and fifteen generally contain eight syllables each

sarcasm
form of verbal irony that insults a person with insincere praise

satire
literary work that attacks or pokes fun at vices and imperfections; makes the reader laugh at or feel disgust for the person or thing that follows victim to this

satyr play
in the drama on ancient Greece, a play that pokes fun at a serious subject involving gods and myths ; a parody of stories about gods and myths

scenario
plot outline of a play, opera, motion picture, or TV program

scene
(1) part of an act of a play; (2) a setting in a literary work, opera, or film; (3) a theater stage in ancient Greece and Rome; (4) part of a literary work, opera, or film that centers on one aspect of plot development

science fiction
literary genre focusing on how scientific experiments, discoveries, and technologies affect human beings for better or worse; differs from pure fantasy in that it presents events that appear to be scientifically plausible

scop
old English poet often attached to a monarch’s court; composed and recited his own poetry

sennet
stage direction in a play manuscript to signal a trumpet flourish that introduces the entrance of a character

sentimentality
a flaw in a literary work or film in which the author relies on tear-jerking or hart-wrenching scenes rather than writing talent or cinematic skill to evoke a response in readers

sermon
a clergyman’s talk centering on a scriptural passage

sestet
final six lines of a Petrarchan, or Italian, sonnet; rhyme scheme in a Petrarchan’s final six lines: CDE, CDE

sestina
poem with six stanzas of six lines each, followed by a stanza with three lines (tercet); a Provencal troubadour, Arnaut Daniel, developed this, which was written in unrhymed iambic pentameter

setting
the environment in which a story unfolds; it includes (1) the time and period of history, (2) the place, (3) the atmosphere, (4) the clothing, (5) the living conditions, and (6) the social climate

shaped verse
concrete poetry; poetry with lines arranged to resemble a familiar object

sic
word inserted in a quoted statement in a research work (essay, magazine article, doctoral thesis, book, etc.) to indicate that the quotation contains an error; appears in brackets after the error

simile
comparing one thing to an unlike thing by using “like,” “as,” or “than”

soliloquy
recitation in a play in which a character reveals his thoughts to the audience but not to other characters in the play

solus
stage direction in a play manuscript indicating a character is alone on the stage

sonnet
form of lyric poetry invented in Italy that has fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme; examples of this include the Italian Petrarchan [blank] and the Shakespearean, or English, [blank]

sonnet, curtal
shortened or contracted sonnet; consists of eleven lines instead of the usual fourteen

soubrette
in a comedy (a play or an opera), a maid or servant girl involved in intrigue affecting the central character; she usually has a quick tongue, common sense, and a good sense of humor

Southern Gothic
fictional genre with a setting in the Southern United Sates that vests its stories with foreboding and grotesquerie ; begun in the twentieth century, this replaces the romanticism of nineteenth century Gothic works with realism; this retains the disturbing elements of earlier Gothic works, whether in the for of a deranged character, a forbidding forest, or a sense of impending doom

spoonerism
slip of the tongue in which a speaker transposes the letters of words; an example of this is “pee little thrigs” for “three little pigs”

Spenserian stanza
a stanza with eight lines in iambic pentameter and a ninth line in iambic hexameter; Edmund Spenser (1552-1599) originated this format in his great allegorical poem “The Faerie Queene”; the rhyme scheme is ababbcbcc

stasimon
in a Greek, a scene in which the chorus sings a song, uninterrupted by dialogue

Stationers’ Register
in Shakespeare’s time, a book in which English government required printers to register the title of a play before the play was published; full name was the “Hall Book of the Worshipful Company of Stationers”

stanza
lines that for a division or unit of a poem; generally have four lines

stereotype
character in a literary work or film who thinks or acts according to certain unvarying patterns simply because of his or her racial, ethnic, religious, or social background; usually an image that society projects or imposes on every member of a group as a result of prejudice or faculty information

stichomythia
in a stage play brief, alternating lines of dialogue spoken in rapid-fire succession; it occurs frequently in Greek drama, especially when characters are arguing or expressing strong emotions

Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress)
in eighteenth century Germany, a literary movement characterized by a rejection of many classical literary conventions (in particular the three classical unities adhered to strictly by French writers but often ignored by William Shakespeare), by great passion and enthusiasm, by disquiet and impatience, and by an exposition of folk themes