LiteratureReviewItis the most difficult to explain quality in a few words, In History thisconcept began in the early post second world war period, so there are manydefinition of quality as: “conforming to requirements” (Crosby,1984),”fitness for use” (Juran, 1982), but when the service entered thefield of business in 1970s, a new definition of service quality appear as”a global judgment or attitude to the overall superiority of theservice”( Parasuraman, et al., 1988).
“Aservice is a process consisting of more or less intangible activities thatnormally but necessarily always take place in interactions between the customerand the service employees and/or physical resources or goods or systems of theservice provider which are provided as solutions to customer problems.”(Gronroos, 2007).Servicesare presents to the consumer as a package and as a bundle of goods and services(Fitzsimmons & Fitzsimmons, 2011). Fitzsimmons and Fitzsimmons, (2011)explain further that the five features of this bundle are the facility tosupport, to support the service the goods were used, can obtain informationfrom the customer, expressed services or benefits easily identifiable andinexplicit services or benefits that are mistily experienced by the customer.
Accordingto Bateson and Hoffman (1999), most people who have special knowledge concordthat customer satisfaction is a short term transaction specific measure whileservice quality is an attitude settled over a long term evaluation ofperformance. Elliott & Healy (2001) talked about student satisfaction asshort-term attitude resulting from a rating of a student’s educationalexperience. There is a bit of difference between the two terms because thestudent is just another form of customer who is a consumer of the educationservice who gaining knowledge and therefore most of the literature on servicemarketing will apply.In order to have a highmonetary value it is essential for the service providers to have a thoroughunderstanding of the factors which leads to consumer satisfaction.
Preceivedservice quality is an essential part of consumer satisfaction so organizations haveto focus their energies on it. (Lassar Manolis et al. 2000).
It is a well knownsaying that “beautylies in the eyes of the observer”. Servive quality is like beauty, i.e; it hasdifferent meaning for different persons and is person dependent. However, whenwe consider the quality of any service than most of its definations becomeconsumer centered.
Hence, consumer satisfaction is a function of preceivedquality or preceived quality is a function of consumer satisfaction. Studiesconducted by Arambewela and Hall (2000) reveals that service quality leads toconsumer satisfaction. Therefore if an organization improves its servicequality it can attract new costumers as well as keeping the old ones. Keepingin view the above association the most important responsibilty of highereducational institutes is to improve student satisfaction by improving theirservice quality.
(Helgesen 2006). Schertzer and Schertzer (2004) representsthat positive perception of service quality is one the most important factor inachieving student satisfaction. These satisfied students in turn will talk totheir friends about the good service quality. This generates a good word of themouth which can lead to increase in number of students in that particularinstitute.
Oldfield and Baron (2005) states that in order to provide goodservice quality and improve student satisfaction, educational institutes shouldemphasize on the needs of the students rather than focusing their energies onthings which are considered important for the students, by the institutes.According to the studies conducted by Schekarchizadeh , Rasil et al (2006) theimportance of student satisfaction can be understood by analyzing theconsequences, that can be caused by dissatisfied students. If the students of aninstitute are not satisfied than the administration of that particularinstitute must be aware of the fact that most of them will leave the instituteor will join a better one. Even if they stay ( because of lack of meaningfullalternative ) they will defame the institute, by talking badly about it intheir social circles.
According to Soutar and McNeil (1996), there are twodimensions by which the students precieve the quality of services of aparticular institute. These include : – Academic Dimensions. – Non-academic Dimensions.
Aithyaman (1997)enlists other dimensions by which service quality is preceived by students.These include: – library facilities – level of curriculum- quality of teaching – leisure facilities – avalaibility ofteachers In addition, 13dimensions of precieved service quality have been proposed by Hill (1995) whichincludes: – library facilities – occupation services- travel agency – housing services- advisory services – health services- university bookshop – financial assistance -computing facilities- work expertise. – involvement ofstudents in course contentsHameed and Amjad (2011)studied that student’s satisfaction in COMSATs Institute of Information Technology(CIIT) by gathering information from 157 students. They use modified version of Keaveney and Young (1997) and discovered thatstudent satisfaction is highly affected by counseling staff, faculty andclasses. It is highly regarded that the level of satisfaction and dissatisfactionis highly related to the failure and success of the student in any institute,because students believe that higher educational quality brings higher learningchances (Aldridge and Rowley 1998). Kotler and Clarke (1987) define satisfaction asthe required result of a task or job that satisfies one’s esteem. Rad (2006) defined it as the willful accomplishment which results inone’s contentment.
The contenment plays an important role in the determining success of asystem especially the educational system as higher the level of satisfactionthe higher will be the level of student’s skill development, knowledge andmentality. Accordingto Zeithaml (1988) satisfaction is the result of combined perfomance of aninstitute’s administrative and educational system. Students who are studying in institution will more motivate for completingtheir studies, if the institution provides such an environment which helpsstudents in improving their learning process i.e. the institute consist ofproper infrastructure for education accumulated with all essential requirmentsof professional and academic development(Rodie and Kleine 2000)posted a theory that the students will be more motivated, loyal and goodperformers if their institution provides essential educational facilities witheffective personel to teach and train the students. The performance of theteacher ( both in and out of the working environment) is an important aspect inincreasing student’s level of impartiality, motivation and satisfaction.
According to Wachtel, (1998) the most important aspect for educational developmentof students iamb successful completion of their studies is the performance oftheir course instructor and his method of teaching. Hence, higher the intellectual ability of the instructor then the betterwill be the evaluation of students (Edstrom, 2008) and consequently more willbe the reliance on the teaching personel (Sproule, 2000). Teacher’s ability, co-ordination andreasonability highly affects the performance of the class. Shevlin, Banyard, Davies and Griffith (2000) defined that the teachers whoteaches logically with punctuality, reasonability in a student friendly mannerare more popular. (Elliot and Shin 2002). This is because of the fact the level of satisfaction increases by workingwith those instructors and lecturers who properly handle the assignments,projects, exams and helps aptitude development of students (Dalton& Denson2009). AsDeming (1982) commented, most people form their opinions based on the peoplethat they see, and they are either dissatisfied or delighted, or some otherpoint on the continuum in between.
In order to deliver high quality services tostudents, universities must manage every aspect of the student’s interactionwith all of their service offerings and in particular those involving itspeople. Services are delivered to people by people, and the moments of truthcan make or break a university’s image (Banwet and Datta, 2003). In order todeliver total student satisfaction, all employees of a university should adhereto the principles of quality customer service, whether they be front-linecontact staff involved in teaching or administration, or non-contact staff inmanagement or administrative roles (Gold, 2001; Low, 2000, cited in Banwet andDatta, 2003). In a recent survey conducted with 310 all male Saudi Arabianstudents attending the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Sohailand Shaikh (2004) found that “contact personnel” was the most influencingfactor in student’s evaluation of service quality.
However, physicalenvironment, layout, lighting, classrooms, appearance of buildings and groundsand the overall cleanliness also significantly contributed to students’concepts of service quality.Tuition fee was first introduced in the universities ofGermany and the law regarding this was passed in January (2005) and you won’tbelieve that when this law was passed, they started charging fee from studentsand by the time they started charging the fee they provided facilities to thestudents according to their needs. When they started charging fee to thestudents there behaviors regarding studies were changed according to (Rolfe in2002).
Those students whom started giving the fee realized thevalue of money and because of that they started to pay to attention towards theirstudies. Thomas and gal ambos in 2004 gave views about how students startedtaking their studies seriously but institution should take care of that ifstudents are satisfied with way of teaching and if they are satisfied then thenew ones will start taking admission. According to learn something the satisfactionof the student regarding the way of teaching is very important. In year (2010Bologna) said that the way of teaching is same in Germany and as well as inEurope. There are two levels of education, Bachelors and masters. When inGermany students complete their bachelor and masters degree they tend toachieve these goals and when they succeed they are satisfied by the services oftheir universities. Students can only achieve their goals if thereadministrations services regarding them were pure (Old field and Baron2000).
Higher quality servicessatisfy a customer more. Satisfaction of a customer lies on his expectation andperception. When we deal with a customer’sdynamic issue than our quality is shown by our attitude and behavior whichmeasures in three levels: Cognitive, effective and behavioral (Oliver 1997). Satisfaction is a name of perception andemotional aspects. The satisfaction of a customer is a major issue.
Customer’sexpectations are really high. In (2002) wieres-Jenssen said that for student’ssatisfaction the main tools which are used increases the student’s educationand help them to achieve their goals. A study conducted by Mamun and das in (1999)explored an interesting factor that service quality is an internshipprogram. The teachers whom deliverhigher education to the students should know English and local language.Service quality includes located campus and its Area, auditorium, parkingfacilities and cafeteria. These variables as key factors for measuring student’ssatisfaction. It is not easy to provide customers same services every time.
Higherquality service do not only help customers but also help stake holders,students employers, guardians, sponsors and regulators (Ladhari, Negi 2009) . In Pakistan Butt andRehman (2010) studied that data was collected from 350 students just for theirsatisfaction and in the result it was observed that the satisfaction of astudent was kept as a least priority. Abbasi in (2011) studied on 401 studentsof Bahauddin Zakarriya University that majority of students were not satisfiedby the course offered to them by different universities. The facility ofteaching method is also outdated. The administrative staff of the universitiesis also less and that is one of a reason that the students are unsatisfied.
Khanin (2011) studied on 495 students from public university that the students ofhigher education are satisfied and the administrative staff of higher educationhas been successful in satisfying the students. Dilshad and Ali (2010) fromIslamia university of Bahawalpur public sector studied on 580 students but onlyreceived reply from 20 departments. The result was that the male students ofMasters were more satisfied as compare to the female students of Bachelors. Thestudents of science group enrolled in the annual examination of the universityare satisfied as compare to the students of arts who are enrolled for thesemester system. In Malaysiaaccreditation studied that 40 programs in private higher institution and thestudy that was to observe that how much students can be satisfied and thepurpose of this study was to explain the purpose of relationship service andstudent satisfaction to explain its relation all the events were held. In 2002it was studied that 83 public sectors and 65 private sectors in highereducation institution was compared that whose students from these twouniversities are satisfied from their school management. Satisfaction coversthe issues of the students and the service quality can be provided to thestudents in several ways.