Literature consumer satisfaction. Preceived service quality is an

Literature
Review

It
is the most difficult to explain quality in a few words, In History this
concept began in the early post second world war period, so there are many
definition of quality as: “conforming to requirements” (Crosby,1984),
“fitness for use” (Juran, 1982), but when the service entered the
field of business in 1970s, a new definition of service quality appear as
“a global judgment or attitude to the overall superiority of the
service”( Parasuraman, et al., 1988).

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“A
service is a process consisting of more or less intangible activities that
normally but necessarily always take place in interactions between the customer
and the service employees and/or physical resources or goods or systems of the
service provider which are provided as solutions to customer problems.”
(Gronroos, 2007).

Services
are presents to the consumer as a package and as a bundle of goods and services
(Fitzsimmons & Fitzsimmons, 2011). Fitzsimmons and Fitzsimmons, (2011)
explain further that the five features of this bundle are the facility to
support, to support the service the goods were used, can obtain information
from the customer, expressed services or benefits easily identifiable and
inexplicit services or benefits that are mistily experienced by the customer.

According
to Bateson and Hoffman (1999), most people who have special knowledge concord
that customer satisfaction is a short term transaction specific measure while
service quality is an attitude settled over a long term evaluation of
performance. Elliott & Healy (2001) talked about student satisfaction as
short-term attitude resulting from a rating of a student’s educational
experience. There is a bit of difference between the two terms because the
student is just another form of customer who is a consumer of the education
service who gaining knowledge and therefore most of the literature on service
marketing will apply.

In order to have a high
monetary value it is essential for the service providers to have a thorough
understanding of the factors which leads to consumer satisfaction. Preceived
service quality is an essential part of consumer satisfaction so organizations have
to focus their energies on it. (Lassar Manolis et al. 2000). It is a well known
saying that “beauty
lies in the eyes of the observer”. Servive quality is like beauty, i.e; it has
different meaning for different persons and is person dependent. However, when
we consider the quality of any service than most of its definations become
consumer centered. Hence, consumer satisfaction is a function of preceived
quality or preceived quality is a function of consumer satisfaction. Studies
conducted by Arambewela and Hall (2000) reveals that service quality leads to
consumer satisfaction. Therefore if an organization improves its service
quality it can attract new costumers as well as keeping the old ones. Keeping
in view the above association the most important responsibilty of higher
educational institutes is to improve student satisfaction by improving their
service quality. (Helgesen 2006). Schertzer and Schertzer (2004) represents
that positive perception of service quality is one the most important factor in
achieving student satisfaction. These satisfied students in turn will talk to
their friends about the good service quality. This generates a good word of the
mouth which can lead to increase in number of students in that particular
institute. Oldfield and Baron (2005) states that in order to provide good
service quality and improve student satisfaction, educational institutes should
emphasize on the needs of the students rather than focusing their energies on
things which are considered important for the students, by the institutes.
According to the studies conducted by Schekarchizadeh , Rasil et al (2006) the
importance of student satisfaction can be understood by analyzing the
consequences, that can be caused by dissatisfied students. If the students of an
institute are not satisfied than the administration of that particular
institute must be aware of the fact that most of them will leave the institute
or will join a better one. Even if they stay ( because of lack of meaningfull
alternative ) they will defame the institute, by talking badly about it in
their social circles. According to Soutar and McNeil (1996), there are two
dimensions by which the students precieve the quality of services of a
particular institute. These include : – Academic Dimensions.

 – Non-academic Dimensions.

Aithyaman (1997)
enlists other dimensions by which service quality is preceived by students.
These include: – library facilities

– level of curriculum

– quality of teaching

 – leisure facilities

– avalaibility of
teachers

 

In addition, 13
dimensions of precieved service quality have been proposed by Hill (1995) which
includes:

– library facilities

– occupation services

– travel agency

 – housing services

– advisory services

– health services

– university bookshop

 – financial assistance

  –
computing facilities

– work expertise

. – involvement of
students in course contents

Hameed and Amjad (2011)
studied that student’s satisfaction in COMSATs Institute of Information Technology
(CIIT) by gathering information from 157 students. They use modified version of Keaveney and Young (1997) and discovered that
student satisfaction is highly affected by counseling staff, faculty and
classes. It is highly regarded that the level of satisfaction and dissatisfaction
is highly related to the failure and success of the student in any institute,
because students believe that higher educational quality brings higher learning
chances (Aldridge and Rowley 1998). Kotler and Clarke (1987) define satisfaction as
the required result of a task or job that satisfies one’s esteem. Rad &
Yarmohammadian (2006) defined it as the willful accomplishment which results in
one’s contentment. The contenment plays an important role in the determining success of a
system especially the educational system as higher the level of satisfaction
the higher will be the level of student’s skill development, knowledge and
mentality. According
to Zeithaml (1988) satisfaction is the result of combined perfomance of an
institute’s administrative and educational system. Students who are studying in institution will more motivate for completing
their studies, if the institution provides such an environment which helps
students in improving their learning process i.e. the institute consist of
proper infrastructure for education accumulated with all essential requirments
of professional and academic development

(Rodie and Kleine 2000)
posted a theory that the students will be more motivated, loyal and good
performers if their institution provides essential educational facilities with
effective personel to teach and train the students. The performance of the
teacher ( both in and out of the working environment) is an important aspect in
increasing student’s level of impartiality, motivation and satisfaction.
According to Wachtel, (1998) the most important aspect for educational development
of students iamb successful completion of their studies is the performance of
their course instructor and his method of teaching. Hence, higher the intellectual ability of the instructor then the better
will be the evaluation of students (Edstrom, 2008) and consequently more will
be the reliance on the teaching personel (Sproule, 2000). Teacher’s ability, co-ordination and
reasonability highly affects the performance of the class. Shevlin, Banyard, Davies and Griffith (2000) defined that the teachers who
teaches logically with punctuality, reasonability in a student friendly manner
are more popular. (Elliot and Shin 2002). This is because of the fact the level of satisfaction increases by working
with those instructors and lecturers who properly handle the assignments,
projects, exams and helps aptitude development of students (Dalton& Denson
2009).

 

                                                                                     

 

 

As
Deming (1982) commented, most people form their opinions based on the people
that they see, and they are either dissatisfied or delighted, or some other
point on the continuum in between. In order to deliver high quality services to
students, universities must manage every aspect of the student’s interaction
with all of their service offerings and in particular those involving its
people. Services are delivered to people by people, and the moments of truth
can make or break a university’s image (Banwet and Datta, 2003). In order to
deliver total student satisfaction, all employees of a university should adhere
to the principles of quality customer service, whether they be front-line
contact staff involved in teaching or administration, or non-contact staff in
management or administrative roles (Gold, 2001; Low, 2000, cited in Banwet and
Datta, 2003). In a recent survey conducted with 310 all male Saudi Arabian
students attending the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Sohail
and Shaikh (2004) found that “contact personnel” was the most influencing
factor in student’s evaluation of service quality. However, physical
environment, layout, lighting, classrooms, appearance of buildings and grounds
and the overall cleanliness also significantly contributed to students’
concepts of service quality.

Tuition fee was first introduced in the universities of
Germany and the law regarding this was passed in January (2005) and you won’t
believe that when this law was passed, they started charging fee from students
and by the time they started charging the fee they provided facilities to the
students according to their needs. When they started charging fee to the
students there behaviors regarding studies were changed according to (Rolfe in
2002).

Those students whom started giving the fee realized the
value of money and because of that they started to pay to attention towards their
studies. Thomas and gal ambos in 2004 gave views about how students started
taking their studies seriously but institution should take care of that if
students are satisfied with way of teaching and if they are satisfied then the
new ones will start taking admission. According to learn something the satisfaction
of the student regarding the way of teaching is very important. In year (2010
Bologna) said that the way of teaching is same in Germany and as well as in
Europe. There are two levels of education, Bachelors and masters. When in
Germany students complete their bachelor and masters degree they tend to
achieve these goals and when they succeed they are satisfied by the services of
their universities. Students can only achieve their goals if there
administrations services regarding them were pure (Old field and Baron
2000).

Higher quality services
satisfy a customer more. Satisfaction of a customer lies on his expectation and
perception.  When we deal with a customer’s
dynamic issue than our quality is shown by our attitude and behavior which
measures in three levels: Cognitive, effective and behavioral (Oliver 1997).  Satisfaction is a name of perception and
emotional aspects. The satisfaction of a customer is a major issue. Customer’s
expectations are really high.

 In (2002) wieres-Jenssen said that for student’s
satisfaction the main tools which are used increases the student’s education
and help them to achieve their goals. A study conducted by Mamun and das in (1999)
explored an interesting factor that service quality is an internship
program.  The teachers whom deliver
higher education to the students should know English and local language.
Service quality includes located campus and its Area, auditorium, parking
facilities and cafeteria. These variables as key factors for measuring student’s
satisfaction. It is not easy to provide customers same services every time. Higher
quality service do not only help customers but also help stake holders,
students employers, guardians, sponsors and regulators (Ladhari, Negi 2009) .

In Pakistan Butt and
Rehman (2010) studied that data was collected from 350 students just for their
satisfaction and in the result it was observed that the satisfaction of a
student was kept as a least priority. Abbasi in (2011) studied on 401 students
of Bahauddin Zakarriya University that majority of students were not satisfied
by the course offered to them by different universities. The facility of
teaching method is also outdated. The administrative staff of the universities
is also less and that is one of a reason that the students are unsatisfied. Khan
in (2011) studied on 495 students from public university that the students of
higher education are satisfied and the administrative staff of higher education
has been successful in satisfying the students. Dilshad and Ali (2010) from
Islamia university of Bahawalpur public sector studied on 580 students but only
received reply from 20 departments. The result was that the male students of
Masters were more satisfied as compare to the female students of Bachelors. The
students of science group enrolled in the annual examination of the university
are satisfied as compare to the students of arts who are enrolled for the
semester system.

In Malaysia
accreditation studied that 40 programs in private higher institution and the
study that was to observe that how much students can be satisfied and the
purpose of this study was to explain the purpose of relationship service and
student satisfaction to explain its relation all the events were held. In 2002
it was studied that 83 public sectors and 65 private sectors in higher
education institution was compared that whose students from these two
universities are satisfied from their school management. Satisfaction covers
the issues of the students and the service quality can be provided to the
students in several ways.