Literature Review Research Methods 5113-900 Urbanism and emergent trends in modern living a study of emerging cities viz.
the smart city, the question of their sustainability Team – 3 spices Names – Goutam Vella, Sridhar Yalamanchili, Tayana Ghosh 11/10/2017 AbstractSmartcities are a conceptual urban development model based on the utilization ofhuman, collective and technological capital for the enhancement of developmentand prosperity in urban agglomerations. However, the concept of Smart cities islargely unexplored and remains as an abstract idea. There is a conflict ofideas between governing institutions, technology vendors, researchinstitutions, developers etc. on this concept.
The buzzword ‘smart’ isfragmented and actually hinder the clarification of the subject even further. Thereis currently a great misunderstanding about what smart cities actually are,despite the extensive discussion, no agreed definition on ‘smart’ cities exist.The concept of smart city was born to provide improved quality of life to citizens.The key idea is to integrate information system services of each domain, suchas health, education, transportation, power grid etc., of the city to providepublic services to citizens efficiently and ubiquitously. Realizing thesignificance of effective data collection, storage, retrieval, and efficientnetwork resource provisioning, the research proposes a high level architecturefor smart city. The architecture facilitates step by step implementationtowards a smart city, integrating services, as they are developed in a timelymanner. Rural population isconverging into urban spaces to relish the fruits of development.
From a globalexperience it is seen that growth pace of urbanization up to 30% is not veryfast but least up to 60-65% this pace of growth increases rapidly. Developingand developed cities now a days feel to provide public services in a mosteffective and efficient way thus paving way for creation of “Smart Cities”.Keywords: internet of things, smart city, taxonomy, security,information system, connectivity, big data analytics, policy making, safety,framework. IntroductionThesmart city design must be citizen-centric. Smart city brings enormousopportunities and exciting challenges. In general, a metropolitan area can be consideredas smart when city operations and services such as healthcare, education,transport, parking, and electricity grid are supported through ICTinfrastructure in order to facilitate efficiency and ease of operation. Despitethe complexity of the city’s systems, the architecture must bring benefits tothe people regardless of their ICT abilities.Agood illustration for an IoT based smart city is provided by the followingdiagram: Theprimary goals of the smart city include: · Offeringdigital means for supporting social needs in all daily transactions, · Tobe laid out on a human scale · Tothe notion of the information society · Tocollect information from the public departments and citizens in order tosupport sustainable growth of the city.
· Topresent a strategy to mitigate the problems generated by the urban populationgrowth by using information and communication technology.Worldwe know is destined towards innovation. Urbanization has always been anevolutionary theory and practice, which on a constant notion, shapes andreshapes through hour glass of time. This paper will focus on Smart cities, as anemerging trend in urbanism. As per Wikipedia “A smart city is an urbandevelopment vision to integrate information and communication technology andinternet of things technology in a secure fashion to manage a city’s assets”.
The emerging visionaries although perceive the concept of smart cities beyondlimitations and current technology, we perceive it to be a city that isindependent, sustained through renewable resources, technologically advancing,cutting-edge infrastructure that apprehends the quality of living, harmony withecology in urban environment. As much as the science and technology isadvancing through each day of existence, urban cities and towns are fallingbehind in terms of safety, policy making, infrastructure and economic diversitywhich this paper focuses on. PolicymakingTheconcept of smart cities revolves around making urban environments smart andtechnologically advanced in terms of governance, mobility, economy andenvironment. Policymaking is the corner stone for building a city through itsphysical and social remnants. A good policy making should apprehend theregional context, circumstances and aid its transformation/ advancement intoits future self.
This paper aims to explore valuable criteria (qualitative andqualitative) in developing policy making solutions. Proposedoperationalization of a smart city –smart cities should capture creative andcollaborative innovation through interaction between public bodies, business,citizens, in dealing with the next data flood, digital footprint, data trails-identifyingand tackling new relational complexities between actors-facinggrand societal challenges in a local context-offeringnew and engaging experiences to citizens.Amajor differentiating characteristic among smart city strategies is whetherthey concern an entire country or nation, or they are focused on a more locallevel, be it a neighborhood, municipality, city, metropolitan area of even aregion. Advantagesof local-level smart city strategies:· Advancementon a local level is more effective in making cities smart.
· Fostersa competitive economy; competition and competitiveness · Fosteringcitizen-centric governance.· Flexiblein exploring variety of business and governance models to their own profit. · Urbanproblems are of manageable size and known nature which make them less effortintensive Disadvantagesof local-level smart city strategies: · Smalland medium sized cities compete for resources against larger andbetter-equipped cities.
· Frictionbetween existing policy agendas already operating at the government level. Atone end of the local scale, it has been advocated that strategic regionalplanning has a significant impact in smart city development, as its role is toharmonize and coordinate top-level with low-level policies (Walters, 2011). Atthe other end, however, small-scale smart city pilot programs allow theaccomplishment of short term achievable goals and provide a platform to assessthe viability of specific smart city solutions and services in real-lifecontexts.National-levelsmart city strategies: National-levelstrategies enjoy state backing; they allow for a broader view and firmercontrol over related policies and coordinated resource pooling, and by doing sothey provide a very strong point of reference for smart city strategies.
Advantages:· Top-levelcoordination and resource allocation.· Complementarityin weak and strong points and joint addressing of.Disadvantages:· Possibilityto fail in capitalizing on the sum of local resources effectively, and ignoringlocal needs and priorities. Urbandevelopment stage: new versus existing citiesExistingor new cities: Ourlong-lived are already big and complex enough to accommodate the currentpopulation and its activities. Emphasis on regenerating degraded urban areas,rather than developing new cities. Where as in developing countries, on theother hand several initiatives have been taken to developed entirely new smartcities, such as Plan IT Valley (Portugal), Skolkovo Innovation Center (Russia),Cyberport Hong Kong (China), Songdo International Business District (SouthKorea), Cyberjaya (Malaysia), Masdar City (Abu Dhabi-UAE). These new cities aredesigned and built from scratch showcasing leading edge ‘smart’ technology andcertifications of green physical planning.
SafetyOna global context, urban environments proved to be more unsafe. This paper aimsto explore different offsetting constraints that lead towards crime andviolence. As the trend move towards smart city, and different gadgets becomesintegrated within everyday lives, personal data collection creating privacyissue is intrinsic. Forexample, an intelligent traffic management app that updates user about trafficcongestion will require that location of the user is collected. To meet thesecurity and privacy requirements is a fundamental challenge for smart citysystem where huge amount of sensitive data processing is involved. Threats fromhackers, intruders, viruses, worms, Trojans etc has immense potential todisrupt the services and bring down the whole system resulting in enormouslosses.
InfrastructureQualityof life is dictated by collective elements such as transportation, recreationalspaces, public and private spaces, business districts, etc. Infrastructuredevelopment of a city is a noticeable feature and an identity of itself. Thispaper aims to study and explore the contextual need for a city and theireffects. Energymanagement: Smart energy metersshould be used for energy management in smart cities, they manage the demand ofenergy, reduce cost, arrest pollution rendering the environment. Requires helpfrom IT, tracks all electricity flowing in the system.
Energy management systemrequires close involvement of consumers, suppliers, energy managers and policymakers. Healthhazard management: Healthconsultation system should be made online; the process should be simple so thateveryone can use it without any problem. This would reduce expenditure cost andmake people almost free from unwanted health hazard. It would help thegovernment cutting unnecessary expenditure cost and improve economic health ofthe city.
Urbanmobility: Vehicles in an urbanenvironment cause severe congestion, pollution, accidents and increase inenergy bills. Smart cities should emphasize on walkability, cycling and use publictransport for daily commute, this would reduce pollution levels, congestion androad accidents. Public transport facilities, footpaths, existing roads,highways, underpasses, elevated roads should be improved. Watersupply: Smart cities should have adequatewater; drinking water and water for other needs should serve the demands of thecitizen. Smart water meters are to be installed to monitor the consumption ofwater by users. The authorities should be watchful about water contamination.Sanitation:This is an important aspect of city planning; lack of proper sanitation wouldcause health hazards in the city. Sanitation system should be well planned andexecuted, grey water should be treated before draining into ponds, lakes orrivers.
There need to be 100% recycling of water.Solidwaste management: Waste management is essential to make cities clean and freefrom health hazards. Proper collection systems and treatment systems should beimplemented.Stormand rainwater harvesting: During a storm event all the water gets stagnant onroads, this would cause infectious diseases. In some cities storm water andrain water is drained into sewers which is found ineffective, in rain and stormevents the water should be collected and stored in a proper way which will behelpful during summer. Electricity:Electricity should be available 24X7; each citizen to ensure that it is notwasted or used in excess should monitor usage of electricity.
Smart grid is tobe established and to be integrated into renewable sources to manage demand.Example: A case study on the existing city ofAmsterdam shows that as, smart and energy-saving technologieswere introduced in the street, both in its public spaces and in the privatebusinesses along it: smart meters, energy displays, smart plugs and smartlighting. At the closing of the program, the final results of the ClimateStreet CO2 emissions were estimated to have been reduced by 8% (energy saving)and 10% (savings achieved by switching to green energy) (Sauer, 2012).
Theenergy management system includes wireless energy displays, connected todigital gas and energy meters. The objective is to reduce energy consumption byat least 14% and at the same time achieve the equivalent amount of CO2reduction (Amsterdam Smart City, 2013). Internetand telephone: Strong Internet with 100% coverage should be ensured in smart citiessince most of the transactions are made online, fiber optic connectivity andWi-Fi should be enabled in all areas of urban local bodies.
Urbandevelopment: Population increase inurban areas is at a great pace, to accommodate large groups of people in acity, policy makers should come up with modern solutions and designs. Education,entertainment and good sport facilities: Education enhances the literacy levelin a smart city, citizens with minimum literacy level improves health andeconomic growth of the city. Entertainment and sport facilities need to beprovided for healthy and happy living.Case studyArecent case study on Songdo, South Korea, an entirely new smart citydevelopment is one of the finest examples which tailored these important attributesin infrastructure development. It is a $35 billion dollar venture and itwas built from scratch on 1.500 acres (610 ha) of reclaimed land alongIncheon’s waterfront in South Korea, 65 kms from the capital, Seoul. Songdo IBDaspires to become a business hub and encompasses principles of sustainabledesign and technology.
The main developers are Gale International, Posco andMorgan Stanley Real Estate. It was master planned according to LEED-ND(Neighborhood Development) principles and calls for a synergistic mix of uses.In this newly-built city, CISCO showcases their Smart + Connected Communitiesprogram fully. The technology vendor employed state-of-the-art technology inbuildings, deploying a network that connects all the components of the city,including residences, offices and schoolsConsideringanother case study of the Brussels Capital Region – BrusselsCapital consists of the City of Brussels, combined with 19 municipalities thatencircle it, with over one million inhabitants, makes up the third region ofBelgium next to Flemish and Walloon region.
Each region has its own government,as do the individual municipalities, next to the federal Belgian government,and the European layer of governance. Such a political structure poseschallenges in developing a centralized approach for the region. The urbanchallenges faced by the city are – severe unemployment and problematicmobility. The city scores poor on the rankings of a smart city even aftertaking initiatives related to ICT and innovative services. One example of thisis the city’s approach to open data.
Although Brussels is trying to improve theurban problems, by looking into mobile apps and supporting open datainitiatives in a limited manner, there hardly appears to be a vibrant mobiledevelopment ecosystem or strong app economy present in the City or Region,particularly when compared to other cities like Ghent. The aim is to provideinsight in the current state of the mobile service ecosystem in the capital ofEurope and Belgium. Comparing the findings it is seen that Brussels fall behindin the establishment of a Smart City and the industry is still a very nascentone.
Aframework is proposed based on a hierarchical model of data storage and defineshow different stakeholders will be communicating and offering services tocitizens. The architecture facilitates step by step implementation towards asmart city, integrating services, as they are developed in a timely manner. Proposed Model and Challenges:Thekey challenges for smart city architecture along with the proposed solution islisted in Table below. IT infrastructure and cost challenges include acquiringand laying down enormous network infrastructure (Wired and wireless, bandwidth,connectivity), Smart devices, sensors, kiosks, Wi-Fi hotspots and much more.The proposed model enables Zone wise implementation of each public servicewhich does not require entire infrastructure at once. The proposed modelsupports both horizontal and vertical scalability. Horizontal scalability meansthat more and more public services can be plugged in easily. Zone wiseimplementation of each public service provides vertical scalability ensuringQuality of Service (QoS) at zone level.
Theproposed model is based on Service Oriented Architecture. Exposing dataservices as web services can make information accessible to a wide variety ofclients where each public service is running its own data center at zone level. Proposedarchitecture for Smart City – Figure1 shows the key layers of a smart city. ICT infrastructure forms the foundationof a smart city. It is the fundamental layer on which all other componentsrely. ICT infrastructure comprises highspeed wired and wireless network connectivity, high end data centers, physicalspace enrichment with smart devices, sensors, actuators and much more. E-governancelayer facilitates the development of strategic connections between variousdepartments of public sector organization.
Holisticview – Figure 2 shows the holistic view of smart city architecture. Theapproach focuses on managing the city as a system of sub-systems. Eachautonomous sub-system is connected to Central Data Management System (CDMS)that is fully integrated and interconnected with all sub-systems.
All systemsshare their data with CDMS which in turn can provide cross domain services tocitizens. Zonelevel architecture – Each sub system collects data from different zones acrossthe city as shown in Figure 3. Each zone maintains its own data center cloud atsite level. Datamanagement – Depicts water and waste management system for a city. It maintainsa local relation database to store data from sensors and other devices in itsown region.Opendata Model – It is assumed that huge data will be generated at each utilitycity center.
The proposed architecture introduces the concept of open datamodel. Some of the data collected by utility center is made available toresearchers and developers via API. Freelance developers, ProfessionalApplication developers and third parties will also have opportunities todevelop new analytics tools, new services, etc.
Revenue can be generated bycharging fee or by advertising. Varietyof application will be available for citizens. ConclusionRecent trends andadvancements in the IoT-enabled smart cities paradigm have been discussed inthis review along with projecting some case studies and the challenges theyface with the emergence of smart cities. A taxonomy for IoT based smart citiesbased on communication protocols has been devised, major service providers,network types, standard bodies, and major service requirements for theunderstanding of the reader. In the end, several open research issues have beenunearthed such as multi-vendor interoperability, low cost, low powerconsumption, and security, which demand considerable attention from ourresearch community.
A model is proposed to address the challenges listed, interms of graphical framework analysis. Three main aspects of challenges havebeen discussed which include – Policymaking, Safety and Infrastructure. Originally,the concept of smart city evolved to provide improved quality of life tocitizens. The idea was to integrate information system services of each domain,such as health, education, transportation, power grid etc., of the city toprovide public services to citizens efficiently.
This has been achieved in manycities but forcing a centralized structure for every other native city andtrying to make them “smart” does not always yield better results. The reviewdiscusses all those factors, explaining the advantages and disadvantages of thesmart cities in town planning as well as regional planning levels. Inconclusion it could be said that the government should work more closely incollaboration with municipalities and citizens to make the system moreefficient and strive towards achieving the initial aim, for the betterment ofthe people and to improve their daily lives. ReferencesChourabi,H., Nam, T., Walker, S., Gil-Garcia, J.
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