Regardless of the creature, all living organisms share the properties of life. The first property of life is order. According to Campbell: essential biology, order is described as “All living things exhibit complex but ordered organization, as seen in the structure of a pinecone.” In organisms, some cells can form tissue. That tissue is used to create organs, which work together to utilize the organ system. The second property of life is regulation. According to Campbell: essential biology, regulation is described as “The environment outside an organism may change drastically, but the organism can adjust its internal environment, keeping it within appropriate limits. When it senses its body tempter dropping, a blizzard can bask on a rock to absorb head.” The third property of life is growth and development. According to Campbell: essential biology, growth and development is described as “Information carried by DNA controls the pattern of growth and development in all organisms, including the ostrich.” The fourth property of life is energy processing. According to Campbell: essential biology, energy processing is described as organisms take in energy and use it to perform all of life’s activities, they emit energy as heat.” The fifth property of life is response to the environment. According to Campbell: essential biology, responses to the environment is described as “All organisms respond to environment stimuli. A carnivorous Venus flytrap closes its leaves rapidly in response to the environmental stimulus of an insect touching the plant’s sensory hairs.” The sixth property of life is reproduction. According to Campbell: essential biology, reproduction is described as “Organisms reproduce their own kind. Thus, hippos reproduce only hippos—never snakes or puffins.” The seventh property of life is evolution. According to Campbell: essential biology, evolution is described as “Reproduction underlies the capacity of population to change (evolve) over time.” These seven properties distinguish living from nonliving things.
When studying basic biology, there is some important terminology to memorize and understand. The first is an acid, which is a compound that lowers the pH of a solution by adding a hydrogen ion. The second is an anion.which simply is a negatively-charged ion. The third is an anode which is the positive electrode in a electrolytic cell. The fourth is a base which is simply a substance that accepts a hydrogen ion or proton. The fifth is a cathode, which is the negative elected in a electrolytic cell. The sixth is a cation which is just a positively charged ion. The event is a chemical bond which is an attraction between atoms which creates a formation of chemical substances. The eighth is a compound which is when two chemical elements are bonded together. The ninth is a covalent bond which is a chemical bond that involves electrons. The tenth is a electrolyte which is a substance that conducts electricity by operating into ions. The eleventh is a electron which is a subatomic particle with a negative charge. The twelfth is an element which is a substance of atoms that all have the same number of protons. The thirthteenth is an ion which is an atom that have charged positive or negative cations by loosing electrons. The fourteenth is a molecule which is simply a group of like atoms covalently conned together.The fifteenth is a solvent which is a substance that can dissolve another substance. These fifteen chemical terminology words will help you significantly when trying to understand biology and chemistry.
All living organisms including cells need basic molecules and compounds necessary for sustaining life. These are four major molecules and compounds, and without one, a cell would not be able to survive. The first are proteins. You can consider proteins as the base, which are the most common molecules found in cells. Proteins are the base for many cells because they help with movement, digestion, and energy. The second are carbohydrates. We all know that carbohydrates provide energy, but according to Basic Biology, they also “help provide structural support for cells and help with communication between cells.” Carbohydrates are typically sugar. The energy of carbohydrates allows plants to reproduce, and grow! The third is lipids. In order to sustain life, lipids are a group of molecules that include fats, waxes and sometimes oils. A certain type of lipid named phospholipid is the main component of a cell membrane. Lipids also help to store heat, along with help in the process of storing energy. The fourth are nucleic acids. RNA and DNA are mandatory to sustain life. DNA is a type of molecule that is your genetic code of a cell (It’s what makes you, you). DNA carries lots of information that an organism needs to live and grow. Without RNA, DNA is useless! RNA decodes the DNA and use the code to help create proteins. Missing one of these molecules or compounds would not allow a cell to live.
According to Campbell: essential biology, some of the major parts of a cell are the cytoplasm, nucleus, and the cell membrane. The nucleus is in the center of an organism. It helps control movement, growth, and activity. The cytoplasms is a solution that filled each cell and is enclosed by the cell membrane. The solution is salt, water and and protein. According to Basic Biology, The cell membrane is a layer of lipids and proteins that surrounds a cell and separates the cytoplasm from its surrounding environment.
Cell respiration, photosynthesis, and cell reproduction, all occur in a succinct order. The first is cell respiration, in which a process of cells use O2 to convert energy from food. The second is photosynthesis, which is a process of organisms use the sun or a light and converts water and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen. The third is cell reproduction, which is a process where cells duplicate their contents and then split into two cells with similar contents.
Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk who created 3 laws referred to as Mendel’s laws. Mendel’s first law is the law of segregation; according to Khan-academy, when an organism makes gametes, each gamete receives just one gene copy, which is selected randomly. The second is the law of independent; according to Khan-academy, alleles of one gene sort into gametes independently of the alleles of another gene. The third is the law of dominance; according to Khan-academy, one of the factors for a pair of inherited traits will be dominant and the other recessive, unless both factors are recessive.
According to NCBI, the structure and function of DNA was known to be a long polymer composed of only four types of subunits, which resemble one another chemically. DNA structure is made up of molecules called nucleotides. DNAs function is to store information for a long period of time.
Cancer is a horrible disease caused by an uncontrolled amount of abnormal cells in a certain part of the body. Cancer develops when a cell becomes abnormal and begins to grow in a manner that is uncontrollable. There are many treatments for cancer including radiation, surgery, and chemotherapy. According to Khan academy, Gene control is to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products. To control genes, you typically do so by controlling transcription, synthesis of mRNA.