LoRaWAN is a radio transmission protocol capable of formsa smart grid.
The setup network uses a star-of-stars topology, with gatewaysserving as transparent bridges that transmit information between sensors andthe central server. Gateways connect to the network through traditional IPbindings, and sensor devices use single-hop wireless communication to one ormore gateways. The structure is similar to one cellular network, but instead ofhaving a single interconnected network, LoRa (Long Range Wireless Network)allows the deployment of more independent networks over the sameinfrastructure.
Lora can covers 15-20 kilometers. The compromise for sucha distance is a reduced power and a lower bit rate, about 0.3 to 50 kbps. A. Basicarchitecture of LoRa systemThe elements components of the system structure in “end-to-end”way of LoRaWAN are shown in Fig.9 and these are:Fig. 1.
The architecture of LoRa system1) Nodes Represents theelements of the LoRa network that monitors and controls the infrastructure deviceswhich are usually located at distance, the LV-MaxSonar-EZ sensors in this case.2) LoRaGatewayThis is the device that receives data from network nodesthrough the LoRaWAN protocol and then is transferred over the Internet to themain application server. The connection to the application server may beEthernet, GSM data, or any other cable or wireless telecommunicationsconnection that provides an Internet connection. Base stations are connected tothe network server using standard IP connections. In this way, the data uses astandard protocol that can be connected to any public or private telecommunicationsnetwork.
Given the resemblance of a LoRa network with a mobile network, theLoRa base stations can often be integrated into a cellular base station. Inthis way, the unused capacity of the cellular station can be used to transmitthe data to the network server.Network serverThe network server manages thenetwork. The network server acts to remove duplicate packets, recognitionprograms, and control the data transmission speed. Given the way it can bedeployed and connected, the complexity of implementing a LoRa network is verylow.
3) ApplicationserverFrom the application server, you can access applicationsthat retrieve data from network nodes through the gateway and display them toprovide the most relevant information for the client. In addition, LoRa allowsbidirectional communication between nodes and the network server, remotecommands can be sent to the nodes, these commands can be related to nodemanagement (remote software update) and control of elements in a system (changeof green time of traffic lights).In this paper it was used and the TTGO LoRa32 board that isan ESP32 based board that has both an OLED and a Lora transceiver, here ispresented the SX1276 transceiver for the 868 MHz band. It has a highsensitivity over -148dBm, + 20dBm output power, high reliability and longtransmission distance. The onboard Wi-Fi antenna, 0.
96 inch blue OLED display,lithium battery charging circuit, CP2102 interface and USB serial chip, make itthe perfect support for Arduino development environment. Operating voltage isfrom 3.3V to 7V. It have support for Sniffer software protocol analysis,Station, SoftAP, and Wi-Fi Direct modes. Data rates are comprised between: 11Mbps and 150 Mbps and the transmit power is between 15.5 dBm and 19.
5 dBm. Thisdevelopment board has a receiver sensitivity up to -98 dBm.