MANUFACTURE OF YOUGHURTØ Fermentedmilk productØ Wordyoghurt comes from Turkish word jugurtØ ManufacturedfromØNormal milkØSkimmed milkØFortified milk STIRRED TYPE YOGHURTØ Low fatmilk, skim milk and non fat dry milk is taken Ø Standardizedyoghurt should contain milk fat of 1 to 2% and SNF of 10.5% , stabilizers of 0.7% Ø Pasteurizeat 95 degrees c for 30 minutes Ø Homogenizeat 60 degrees c Ø Afterhomogenization cool to 43 degrees c and with the same bulk starter is added Ø Mix inholding VAT at 43 degrees c at a pH of 4.5 Ø Packingdone in a container after cooling to 25 degrees c Cool and store plain yoghurt at 5 degrees c upto 3 to4 weeksSET TYPE YOGHURTØ Low fatmilk, skim milk and non fat dry milk is taken Ø Standardized yoghurt should containmilk fat of 1 to 2% and SNF of 12.5% Ø Pasteurize at 95 degrees c for 30minutes Ø Homogenize at 60 degrees c Ø After homogenization cool to 43degrees c and with the same bulk starter is added Ø Mix in holding VAT at 43 degrees c Ø Packing done in a container Ø Incubate the container at 43 degrees cat a pH of 4.
5 Ø Cool and store plain yoghurt at 5degrees c upto 3 to 4 weeks KUMISS MANUFACTUREØ It is derived from word koumisØ It is also called as kumys orkoumiesØ ORIGIN: USSR , Mongolia ,Tibet Ø This is a traditional dairyproduct Ø This can be used for directconsumption Ø INTRODUCTION:It is a1. Frothy beverage 2. Greyish white liquid3. Homogenous in consistency 4. Refreshing taste 5.
Characteristic aromaØ Kumiss derives its name from ancient kuman tribes / kumyks MICROBIOLOGYØ Starter culture used is Lactobacillus delbrueckiiØ Sub species: bulgaricus Ø Lactose fermenting yeastsØKUMISS is made from pasteurized mares milk ØMares milk has lower concentration of fat , protein ,ash than cows milk ØMare milk has less casein than cows milk , but hasmore whey protein PROCESS: Add 30 % starter culture to pasteurizedmilk Ø Allow to ferment at 26 to 28 degrees c (78.8to 82.4 degrees F) Ø First 30 to 60 minutes of fermentation , milkis stirred followed by intermittent stirring After fermentation , kumiss is bottled ,capped and stored for ripeningat 4to 6 degrees for 1 to 3 days Ø Major types of fermentationproducts are lactic acid , ethanol , co2Ø Three types of kumiss are-Ø 1. WEAK-(ripened one day)- Titrable acidity is 0.54to 0.72% Ethanol content of 1 to1.
7%Ø 2. MEDIUM-(two days ripening ) Titrable acidity is 0.73to 0.
95% Ethanol content of 1 to1.7%Ø STRONG –(THREE DAYS OF RIPENING): Titrable acidity is0.96 to 1.08% Ethanol content of1.75 to 2.50% FINAL PRODUCT:Ø Titrable acidity is 0.
90 to 1.26%Ø Ethanol content of 0.5 to 2.5%Ø FOOD VALUE It is a dietetic product , used in the treatment of tuberculosis andgastrointestinal disorders in USSR Ø Treatment doseØ 1.5 liters per day in adultsØ 0.
5 to 0.8 liters in children OTHER METHOD OF PREPARATION Ø Inoculating pasteurized milk with 10 to 20 % culture Ø Mix for 15 to 20 minutes and fermentation done at 25 to 26 degreesc for 3 to 5 hours Ø During first hour milk is stirred 3 to 4 times for 1 to 2 minutes andafter stirring is done for 30 minutes to 1 hour Ø Kumiss is then bottled and stored at room temperature MANUFACTURE OF KEFIRØ The name is derived from ‘kefy’ in turkeyØ It is the traditional product of USSRØ Kefir is made up of cow or goat or other milk availableØ Used for direct consumption Ø It has creamy consistency which is a stirred beverageØ It has a characteristic taste and aromaØ Product is sour and has variable amounts of co2 and alcoholØ Kefir is produced in USSR, Poland , Germany , Sweden , RumaniaØ Kefirinvolves use of kefir grains only Ø Grains areyellowish in colour , they are 1 to 2 mm to 3 to 6 mm diameter Ø Kefir hasa polysaccharide called “Kefiran” which is of microbial origin MICROBIOLOGYØ Microflorainclude – lactic acid streptococci, Leuconostock, Mesophilic lactobacilli ,Yeast.Ø Good qualitykefir is obtained by proper cultivation of grains MANUFACTUREOF KEFIR Ø Skim milkis pasteurized at 90 to 95 degrees c Ø Kefirculture is mixed at the rate of 2 to 3 percent Ø The wholemixture is incubated at 20 to 22 degrees c for 10 to 12 hours followed byripening and slow cooling at 8 degrees c for a time of 12 hours Ø Addingsmall quantities of kefir culture to the production culture improves flavour offinal kefir. VALUE OF FINALPRODUCT Ø Totalacidity of the product is 1 % Ø It hastotal ethanol % of 0.01 to 0.
1%Ø It alsohas small amounts of co2Ø One ml ofgood quality Kefir has 10 to the power 9 lactic streptococci and 10 to thepower 7 to 8 Leuconostocs and 10 to the power 4 to 5 yeasts and acetic acidbacteria Ø The finalproduct should have minimum 11% non-fat solids and a minimum of 6% fat content ACIDOPHILUSMILK Ø Whole orskimmed milk is fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus which is said to havetherapeutic benefits in gastrointestinal tract Ø It has anoverall beneficial effect on people suffering from diarrhoea and intestinal gasØ It has avery harsh acid taste so faces rejection by some customers MANUFACTURE- Ø Light UHTcow milk / Pasteurized reconstituted Whey Ø Heattreatment is done at 37 degrees c Ø Adding prebioticcombination at a rate of 3% Ø Themixture is then thoroughly mixed Ø Inoculation of prebiotic cultures Ø Incubation is done at 37degrees c until apH of 4.8 Ø Cooling is done at a temperature below 10degrees c Ø Packaging is done Ø Storage is done at 4 degrees c BULGARICUSMILK CULTURE USEDIS lactobacillus bulgaricus MANUFACTURE- Ø Light UHTcow milk / Pasteurized reconstituted Whey Ø Heattreatment is done at 37 degrees c Ø Addingprebiotic combination at a rate of 3% Ø Themixture is then thoroughly mixed Ø Inoculation of prebiotic cultures Ø Incubation is done at 37degrees c until apH of 4.8 Ø Cooling is done at a temperature below 10degrees c Ø Packaging is done Ø Storage is done at 4 degrees c CHEDDARCHEESEØ INTRODUCTION Ø Cheddar cheese is a relativelyhard, off white or orange, sometimes sharp tasting, natural cheese. Ø Originated in a village Cheddarin Somerset, England.
Ø Most popular type of cheese inUS. Josep Harding is the father of cheddar cheese MANUFACTUREOF CHEDDAR CHEESE Ø RECIVINGMILK Ø PREHEATING(35-45°C) Ø FILTRRATION/CLARIFICATION Ø STANDARDIZATION Ø PASTEURIZATION(63°C/30 MIN) Ø ADDINGSTARTER(RIPENING)31°C Ø ADDINGCOLOUR. Ø ADDINGRENNET(RENNETING)(31°C) Ø COAGULATION/ SETTING. Ø CUTTINIG ØCOOKING UPTO( 37-39°C) ØDRAINAGE OF WHEY ØCHEDDARING . ØMILLING ØSALTING ØHOOPING ØDRESSING ØPRESSING Ø ØDRYING ØPARAFFINING ØCURING / MATURING MOZZARELLACHEESE Ø Mozzarella originated from Italy , but United states is theprincipal producer.Ø They are rarely used as an ingredient due to their poor shredding andclumping properties and limited shelf lifeØ Most of the mozzarella cheese is used in pizza making MANUFACTUREØ Milk is obtained and standardized to a fat of 4.
5% fat & 8.5% S.N.F Ø Milk ispasteurized Ø Mixing with a thermophilic culture starter of about 1.5 to 2 % , in a pHof 6.55 Ø Then Setting with RENNET is done , with a pH of 6.
45 for 30 minutes Ø Then ‘CUTTING’ is done at a pH of 6.40 for 55minutes Ø SCALDING is done at 70 degrees Ø DRAINAGE is done at a pH of 6.10 for 2hours Ø ‘CHEDDAARING’is done at a temperature of 42 degrees at a pH of 5.
90 for a time of 2 hours and 30 minutes Ø Millingis done at a pH of 5.25 and for a timeof 3 hours and 30 minutes Ø STRETCHING is done by addition ofwater at 70 degrees c Ø MOULDING Ø BRINING is done at 4 DEGREES C PROCESSEDCHEESEØ Inmanufacturing cheese is processed with heat and melts , for this rennet ,cheese , mainly hard and semi soft cheese , less soft cheese are blended andmade into a uniform mass by using melting salts.Ø Processedcheeses are manufactured by additives (mainly melting salts )are subjected toheat processØ Themanufacturing process for processed cheese was developed by Swiss Gerber andstetller shortly Ø TECHNOLOGYOF PRODUCTIONØ 4 parts-Ø 1.Selection ,storage and preparation of raw materials Ø 2.
Blendingof raw materials and additives Ø 3.ProcessingØ 4.Post treatmentand Packing RAWMATERIALSØ Selection-for processing basically all types of rennet cheese are suitable and to certainextent quarg and sour milk can be added Ø Amongcheese types “chester” type is preferred due to fibrous structure of the cheesemassØ Rawmaterials are subjected to an organoleptic and chemical quality check andquantity is determined Ø Untilprocessing the cheese types and quantities are stored separately at atemperature of 10 to 14 degrees c and a relative humidity of 85 to 95 % Ø Thepreparation of cheese with a rind(firm skin) consists of a softening process ina water bathØ Furtherthe surface of the cheese is cleaned with brushes and warm water and some skindefects are removed Ø Sometimescomplete deskinning is done which may result in product lossesØ After theripening process is completed it is followed by a milling process and blendinginto melt batches.Ø BLENDINGAND ADDITIVES Ø The degreeof ripening of raw material is important , as it controls the melting process to a larger extentØ The degreeof ripening can be expressed in terms of relative casein content Ø The caseincontent of firm processed cheese should not be less than 70% and for separableprocessed cheese it should not be less than 50% MELTING SALTSØ Two groupsof salts are used generallyØ 1.citrates (sodium citrate, potassium citrate, calcium citrate) or lactate(sodium lactate, calcium lactate) upto 4%Ø 2.phosphates ( sodium phosphate, sodium di phosphate and sodium and potassiumpoly phosphate)Ø Upto anextent of 2% in finished product MELTINGPROCESSØ Themelting process is an operation in which heat , mechanical treatment andeffective melting salts transform the disintegrated raw material together withadditives into a homogenous mixtureØ Thetypical structure of cheese formed during enzymatic ripening to form a calciumparacaseinate network and firmed up during the ripening must be broken upØ Disintegrationin a milling and grating unit continues in the melting pan on adding heat andcontinuous stirring Ø Due toheat the particles contract and mass is destabilizedØ Ø Melting salts reserve this phaseseparation as they promote the exclusion of proteins and have a peptizingeffect Ø The resulting charge in the electriccharge results in reduction of surface tension between water and proteinforming hydrating spheres on surface of particlesØ Ionization of fat particles thenresults in a reduction of surface tension , in this case between fat and waterthus stabilizing the state of emulsion Ø Conversion of viscoelastic raw cheeseinto a short structure of processed cheese during melting is called as”creaming”Ø There is a hydration process duringand after dispersion only at melting processØ This process is interrupted by cuttingof heat or by cooling Ø Further we can see water absorption bymelting mass where the balance water is boundØ This results in a volume, mass andviscosity increaseØ The pre treated raw materials aretransferred to trolleys usually batch type melting machines are usedØ Melting temperature of 85 to 95degreesc under atmospheric pressure and vacuum Ø Melting time of 4 to 8 minutes forfirm cheese and 7 to 15 minutes for spreadable cheese Ø Speed of 60 to 140 RPMØ PH value of 5.
5 to 5.7 is used Ø Vacuum in the melting vessel of 0.33to 0.60 barØ The melting process is finished when auniform , smooth, homogenous mass has developed Ø With firm cheese the mass should flowoff the stirrers in long strips for spreadable cheese Ø POST TREATMENT-Ø Post treatment covers the operationsof cooling and packing .Ø For cooling the closed packs areconveyed through a cooling tunnel where they are brought to a temperature of 25to 35 degrees c Ø Packaging done in wooden or cardboardboxes sometimes in special boxes also.
MANUFACTURE OF COTTAGE CHEESEThis is a soft unripened cheeseusually made from skim milkIt has mildly acidic flavour and hassmall flakes or curd with meaty consistency METHOD OF MANUFACTUREReceiving pasteurized skim milk Addition of calcium chloride Adding of starter culture Adding of rennet at rate of 0.01% Setting is done at 30 degrees c Cutting Cooking upto 46 degrees c over 2 hours Drainage of whey Washing and draining the curd Salting Creaming Packaging and storage REFFERENCES Ø Dairy Science and Technology (Second Edition) By Pieter Walstra Jan T.M. Wouters Tom J. Geurts. Ø Milk processing and quality management Edited by A.
Y Tamime. Ø Outlines of dairy technology bySukumar DeØ Milk and milk products technology by Mohammad raziuddin, Ashok hembade