McClelland’s Motivational Needs Theory
McClelland’s theory hypothesized that individuals are persuaded in differing degrees by their need for Achievement, need for Power, and need for Affiliation and that their needs are collected based on individual’s careers and lifetime .” (Lussier & Achua, 2007). Individual’s motivation in performing task is affected by these three needs as per below:
· Needs for achievement (nACH) is the desire to achieve the standard goals, attain a high standard of success, and accomplish the complicated tasks successfully by individual’s effort and ability rather than concentrating on pure chance. They dislike performing the functions with the high probability of success and get no achievement satisfaction from the success that occurs from factors beyond their advancement because there is no challenge to their skills and they assume it blocks to initiate in problem-solving skills. They prefer to set goals that need stretching themselves. There are some relationships between achievement need and job performance according to Robbins and Judge,2017. High degree of personal responsibility,feedback, common risk will strongly enhance the motivation of high achievers.
· Needs for Power (nPOW) is the need to influence and control others(McCelland,1961). Power motivate person are highly concentrated with motivation to organise and direct group activites effectively, willing to win a competation and an argument and to overcome the rival. In this case, high achievers cannot manage well, especially in large organisations because they concentract only on performing their tasks personally in effective ways but are not interested in influencing others to do well.
· Needs for affiliation (nAff) is the desire for friendly, close interpersonal relationships, avoid conflict and establish warm friendships (Draft,2008) and (McClelland, 1961, 1985; Robbins, 2003). At work, affiliation motivated person can get the high satisfaction when the group member who like harmony and cohesion betwen surbodinates pursue team activities in which interdependence and interactions with others are lead. They prefer welcoming to each others and participating in social friendly activities. Those high in this measurement have a tendency to invest impressive energy looking for cooperations with others (McClelland & Koestner, 1992).