Module 6 English I

Five VOCAB Words to Rescue
Jocund- happy
Innumerable- uncountable
Deprivation- a loss
Exhilarated- energetic and excited
Excursion- trip to explore

What is the theme of module 6?
Understanding for All

What is the writing prompt for Module 6?
Writing Prompt

How have these two authors expressed their relationships with nature? After reading and analyzing “Calypso Borealis,” an essay by John Muir, and William Wordsworth’s poem “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud,” write an essay in which you describe how each author views nature and answer the question. Support your discussion with evidence from the text.

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John Muir
John Muir was a writer and explorer who can be classified as a naturalist. The philosophy of naturalism is very broad, and so it is important to focus on the details of naturalism that were most important to Muir.

Naturalism
Naturalism involves the study of nature as a way to connect all things in the world. Naturalists believe that human beings are also part of nature and should be studied as they interact with their natural surroundings. Science is important to naturalists, who use their powers of observation to conduct many of their studies.

Romanticism
Romanticism involves the often beautiful depiction of nature as an optimistic symbol for human life and events. Though science is not a focus, nature becomes a safe place for human beings to explore their spiritual foundations.

Diction
Diction is word choice. Every writer must be aware of his or her diction in order to be effective with the language. With so many words to choose from that can express similar ideas, essayists and other writers spend much of their time selecting the perfect words for exactly what they want to say.

How do you find the author’s diction?
In order to observe a writer’s diction, you must pay close attention to the words the writer used. Ask yourself the following questions to learn more about the diction:

What do these words have in common with each other?
Are these words positive words or negative words?
What other words could this writer have used instead?
Would using different words have changed the meaning of the story or poem?
Would using different words have changed the way the story or poem makes the reader feel?

Connotation
Many words have specific connotations, which means that they make the reader have an emotional reaction that goes beyond the basic definition.

Dialect
This line from Muir’s essay is an example of dialect. This is when writers spell out words and organize phrases as they sound phonetically in the region. For instance, a person might write, “Less go hikin’!” to mean, “Let’s go hiking!” The accent appears in the writing itself. Be sure to observe when this happens in something you read!

Essays
In an essay, you will find a discussion of thoughts that is similar to everyday speech. The ideas will be organized according to what will make the most sense to the reader. An essayist wants you to understand a particular message, whether it is the story of an event, information about ways to solve a problem, or an explanation of useful facts. An essay often conveys information so that you understand and possibly even agree with the writer.

Poems
In a poem, you will find a carefully organized selection of words that are meant to express emotion. The ideas in a poem may not be obvious the first time you read them. A poet wants you to explore the deeper meaning in the words, whether the poem is two lines long or two hundred pages long. A poem often conveys a message that makes you feel the emotion the poet is describing. How should you read a poem differently than an essay?

William Wordsworth
Romanticism takes the reader to a place of spirituality and connection with nature. William Wordsworth was one of the most famous romantic poets of his time.

Wordsworth was a successful British poet in the early 19th century. For a while, he was close friends with another famous poet, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and together both writers led a romantic literary movement.

In Wordsworth’s poetry, you will find an emphasis on feelings and emotion. You will also notice a strong connection to nature. Look closely for the way Wordsworth uses Romanticism in his writing.

Tone
The attitude or emotion an author conveys in writing is suggestive of the tone of a speaker’s voice.

Mood
tone, which creates a mood, or emotional response from the reader.

Syntax
Some writers use unique words—some even use unique sentence structure. When a writer places words in an unusual order, this is known as a special choice in syntax.

What is the effect of syntax?
Syntax can affect the pace of a passage or the rhythm of a stanza. If words are in an unusual order, or if a writer uses punctuation in a unique way, readers might have to slow down to make sense of the text. If an author joins several phrases together with commas, the rhythm speeds up. The change in rhythm can affect the mood.

Anecdote
A very short story that illustrates some aspect of your essay’s topic can help your reader connect to your topic.

Quotation
A saying or quotation that ties into your essay’s topic can be thought-provoking for your reader.

Definition
A fresh or unusual way of defining the topic of your essay can cause your reader to keep reading. Do not use dictionary definitions as a hook.

Description
A vivid description of some aspect of your essay’s topic can get your readers’ attention; appeal to as many of the senses as possible to create a powerful image that will keep them reading.

Bold Statement
A surprising or shocking statement connected to the topic of your essay causes your reader to keep reading to find out if the statement is true or how it connects to your topic.

Facts or Statistics
A surprising fact or statistic pertaining to your essay’s topic can draw your reader into your essay.

What is a bridge?
the bridge is a strong connection between the hook and the thesis because it provides a logical connection from the opening sentence to the last.

Summarizing
putting the main, broad ideas of a text entirely in your own words with citations

Paraphrasing
putting a specific sentence or several sentences entirely in your own words with citations

Direct Quoting
using the words of another writer with citations

Tips for a Successful Conclusion
To signal closure
use words such as “finally,” “clearly,” “from these examples, we can see that…”
make a bold statement about the power of nature or the style of authors
make a statement about the power of a text to influence readers

To synthesize
walk away from your writing and explain what you have learned about the topic to someone (this will help you to resist the old habit of restating your main ideas)
think of synthesis as capturing your key points and commenting on their significance
ask yourself: What ideas did I analyze throughout my essay and what do those ideas tell me about nature, writing, or humanity?

To challenge your readers
tell them directly to take a specific action
show them the effects of a changed way of thinking or acting