Most virtual surgery procedures utilize a combination of computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to create an in-depth three-dimensional model of the organ and the patient. The combination of scans allows surgeons to see both the surface and interior of the Organ at all times. Motion sensors attached to the operating tools simulate any action taken towards the virtual organs, allowing surgeons to manipulate the image as they would during an actual surgery. Haptic technology devices, on the other hand, simulate the physical experience of the operation through a combination of force, motion, and vibration based on the surgeon’s movements. All these elements combine to allow a surgeon to “touch” a virtual organ, manipulate it, and feel the results.
In surgery, the life of the patient is of utmost importance many patient have lost lives because of surgicalerrors. VR provide good tool to experiment the various complications arise during surgery. With the cadaver becoming a rarity and being considered unethical and impractical the virtual surgery system holds a great promise. With these kind of systems surgery residents can perform a particular kind of surgery for a zillionth time without the need of an actual patient. As this system shows and also points out mistakes, the aspiring surgeons can always learn from their mistakes gives a new clinician a chance to mess up with a virtual patient (and learn from it) rather than messing up with a real patientAs the touch enabled simulators used in virtual surgery system allow users to practice their skills on computers without the use of costly cadavers, it’s quite cost effective.With the use of force feedback system these systems combine the visual and factual information with a sense of touch which gives the feel of operating on alive patient.2VIRTUAL SURGERY IN DETAILS It is a virtual reality technique of simulating surgeryprocedure. It helps surgeons in improving surgery plans.
They practice surgery process on 3D models. Virtual surgical tools or gloves are connected to motion sensors where the users can physically feel the difference in simulated tissue and organs. The virtual surgery works, when the patient come in for procedure, they get scanned and a 3D dimensional double is generated With processes like MRI scan ,CT scan the process of making a virtualdouble of you starts. Then after using processes like VR environment and simulation the process proceeds3. Then taking standard human measurements of male/female body the simulated image is brought to life. Various complex software’s, real-time fluid dynamics theory and SensAble pvt. Technology’s GHOST software’s are needed to move into the final image.Generate a 3D model depending upon this simulation needed anatomical images can be derived from series of patient’s MRI or video recording, which are 2D images.
Images are segmented and constraints are imposed. Then we construct a reference model. After that obtain final model by deforming the reference model.Simulating haptic touch sensation.
Calculation of force applied to cut & punchers the various tissues. Haptic goes a long way to make virtual reality simulators more life-like. Virtual Reality Simulators consist of program run the software to interact with virtual environment. The addition of hepatics to virtual environments has provided computer users with the ability of expression in multiple dimensions.Force Feedback System These force feedback systems provide the user the same resistance or reaction from the VR environment as it would have provided in an actual environment .Otherwise known as haptic devices, these are commercially produced by PHANTOM pvt. Limited, USA .
The haptic devices offer higher fidelity, stronger forces and lower friction to the practicing surgeons. Without these force feedback systems the virtual surgery program would have become just like a video game.These devices reproduce the feeling of moving and manipulating the surgical tools within the patient’s anatomy and the flexibility to tailor the tactile experience.• There are many striking similarities between pilots and surgeons. • They are always ready to manage life threatening situation in an unpredictable environments very dynamically.
• The surgeons used to follow text book images or cadavers for the training purposes. Todaycadavers are limited in supply and generally allowing one time use only, so this virtual surgery technology isbecoming a training method of choices in most medical school. • These virtual reality models enable the use to perform a procedure countless times which help the surgeon to strip away various layer of tissue and muscles to examine each organ separately, which result in a error less surgery.• Tradition wise the surgery was planned, the surgeon inculcated the various parameter and procedure for surgery which he is calculated from his earlier experiment. • He did not have exact idea how the surgery was going to result which led to lots of errors and risking of the human life. • This virtual surgery technology helped in reducing these errors and to plan the surgery in most efficient and reliable manner.• The integration of advance imaging technology, image processing and 3D graphical capabilities has led to great interest in image guided and computer- aided surgery. This techniquehas been proved useful in robotic surgeryRemote surgery also known as telesurgery is the ability for a doctor to perform surgery on a patient even though they are not physically in the same location.
It is a form of tele presence. A robot surgical system generally consists of one or more arms (controlled by the surgeon), a master controllerconsole, and a sensory system giving feedback to the user. Remote surgery combines elements of robotics, cutting edge communication technology such as high-speed data connections and elements of management information systems. · Gives the opportunity to practice procedures and learn from mistakes.· Safe environment, mistakes aren’t hurting the “patient”. · Has an enjoyable, goal oriented, relaxed environment. · Entices and intrigues 7 the future generations of doctors. · Programming can be made to represent rare or new forms ofdisease or anatomical variations.
· Doctors can practice with these programs before doing the surgery on live patient. · It is real because you can get hepatic touch feedback which encourages your technique. · Patients can be better prepared for the operations they will undergo. · Patients can go through their procedures, will better understand the trauma, they will be undergoing and realize the amount of recovery time needed. 6.2Disadvantages · Still extremely expensive as the technology is ne and needs extensive programming. · Cost doesn’t meet widespread demand. · Could encourage bad habits such as being unfocussed in the operating room · Doctor’s need to be completely focused and concentrated.
· There is no way of virtually teach decision making, knowledge, and communication skills 7. · Simulation can’t teach mental aspects ofbeing a surgeon. · Some patients can find the process unsettling and back-out of operations.Medical virtual surgery has a long way to go in the coming era. The use of computer aided and image guided technique has helped a lot in the advancement of medical science. Virtual reality in medicine is a subject of active research is in the area of medicine. Human-computer interfaces such as force-feedback and tactile interfaces which are important for medical use .
Tissue modeling techniques for simulation of organs. Display techniques we can expect a new generation of diagnostic medical imaging techniques that utilize virtual reality concepts for effective visualization of human anatomy new telemedicine applications. Virtual patients should be designed and used to promote clinical reasoning skills. More research is needed to inform how to effectively use VPs. undefined undefined undefinedundefined undefined undefined undefined undefined undefined undefined