Music 147 Exam 3 Terms

Plena
creolized music originally from S of PR; working-class form of music –> popular among all classes; seguidor, segunda, requinto (panderetas)

Seguidor
lowest/largest pandereta (tambourine drum)

Segunda
punteador- middle sounding pandereta

Requinto
highest sounding (smallest) pandereta used in plena

Bomba
“drum” in ashanti; afro-PR sung and percussion musical genre; buleador, primo, cua sticks playing cinquillo pattern

Buleador
lower drum in Bomba music

Cua
sticks in Bomba that play cinquillo pattern

Bomba Sica
particular style of bomba commonly heard in PR and Latin popular dance music

Racial Formation
The overarching ways in which societies are organized and experienced racially; historical frame within which racial categories are created, experienced, and ultimately transformed over time

Tri-ethnic Heritage
notion that African, European, and indigenous people have all blended over time to create modern Latin Am populations and that all have contributed culturally to the region

Retention
The continued possession, use, or control of something

Creolization
refers to the fusion or blending of different racial and cultural groups over time and the creation of something new and different out of those components

Hispaniola
name given initially by Columbus to the second largest island in the Caribbean, currently divided into the nations of DR and Haiti

Bandurria
mandolin-like instrument w/ six pairs of doubled strings; trans-Caribbean instrument

Laud
six doubled strings; trans-caribbean instrument

Musica Jibara
PR Country music; “lalaleo”, cuatro, bandurria, laud

Seis
most popular musica jibara; PR string-based music incorporating sung poetry; cuatro, guiro, guitar

Aguinaldo
a style of seis derived from religious events- like christmas carols

Cuatro
PR guitar used in seis; traditionally 4 strings but 2 bass strings added

Decima
ten line, octosyllabic stanzas; most common rhyme scheme = espinela in abbaa, ccddc

Pie Forzado
“forced foot”; poetic line the composer is obligated to work into every decima as final line

Musica Guajira
Cuban “Country music”; folk music associated with rural farmers; predominantly string instruments, decima poetry

Punto
Cuban “seis”; refers to sung decima poetry accompanied by strings; tres laud and bandurria; triple meter

Controversia
improvised dueling of Punto between 2+ performers

Folk Catholicism
Catholic practices that don’t conform to orthodox catholicism; influenced Hisp Carib music; blends spanish traditions w/ Africa

Chango
in Santeria relgion- god of thunder, lightning, justice, great warrior-king

Yoruba
modern day Nigeria

Santeria
Afro-Cuban religion derived from Oricha religion of Yoruba and Fon

Orichas
deities of Santeria believed to be ancestors, each has own rhythm and song

Bata Drums
hour glass shaped drums of Yoruba heritage; okonkolo, itotele, iya

Toques de Guiro
“the playing of gourds”; secular celebration giving thanks to orichas

Akpwon
lead singer of Toques de Guiro

Chequeres
gourds with beads on them; smallest to largest: primero, segundo, caja

“Tratados”
an oricha for Eleggua and other deities

Eleggua
messenger deity in Santeria; guardian of the crossroads (opener and closer of doorways)

Middle Passage
triangular trade route; Europe to W Africa to Caribbean back to Europe

Barracones
rural slave barracks

Cabildos
city barracks

Palenques
encampments of runaway slaves

Cofradias
“councils” or “brotherhoods”; colonial period institutions organized along african ethnic lines

Tresillo
“little group of 3”; jumped rhythm (syncopated attacks); Cuban son, PR seis

Cinquillo
“little group of 5”; PR Danza and Bomba

Creolized Music
use of classical instruments (timpani) but then adapted to cuban musical tastes

Cuban son
verso/canto; montuno section; tumbadora, bongo, martillo, tres, son clave, timbales

Verso/canto
structure of cuban son, marked by european harmonic progressions

montuno
cyclical call and response section of cuban son; predominant in rural son

Tumbadora
played in Toques de Guiros; conga w/ 2 basic patterns played during canto and montuno (call/response) sections

bongo
small hand drums; plays martillo pattern in cuban son

martillo
“hammer” played on the bongos during verso/canto section in cuban son; eight notes w/ accent

tres
Used in cuban son and Cuban Punto; guitar with 3 double courses of strings; plays montuno ostinato pattern

timbales
Used in Conjunto Son; two toms with cow bells in between

son clave
pattern played by claves (3/2 or 2/3)

Sexteto
cuban son band- tres & guitar (with vocals), bass, bongo, lead vocal (& clave), 2nd vocal (with maracas)

Septeto
added trumpets to the sextet

Conjunto
commercial cuban son- sextet added 1-3 trumpets, piano, congas – bigger sound

Habanera
Rhythm of Reggaeton, like tresillo but add 1 more beat