Myopia is one of the mostmundane types of visual impairment and reduces the pellucidity of individuals’distance vision. The prevalence of myopia has been incrementing over the lastfew decades and near work such as working in close proximity to a visual targetsuch as reading book proximately has been widely accepted and shown inepidemiological studies to be the antecedent of the onset and progression ofmyopia. The proposed causal mechanisms behind near work and myopia, includingaxial elongation and ciliary muscle tonus are all attributed to perpetual andelongated accommodation during close-up, thus reducing the accommodationdemands (e.g., reading further away, utilizing reading glasses, and having breaksduring elongated period of near work) is highly recommended for myopia control.Apperceiving the fact that the incrementation utilizations of computers ineveryday working life and in the edifying system have dramatically heightenedthe frequency of near work, modifying the distance between the ocular perceiverand the visual target during near work might be one of the feasible solutionsin the obviation of myopia. From this perspective, near work should be viewedas a self-regulatory deportment that is dependent on human factors, such asmotivation and convivial-cognitive credences (King et al., 2013).
Predicated on anteriorstudy of systematic review and meta-analysis, myopia is one of the fiveimmediate priorities for the ‘Vision 2020’ initiative as set out by the WorldHealth Organization (WHO) because it is a consequential cause of reduced visionin populations throughout the world. The prevalence of myopia around the worldhas incremented recently. Several factors have been suggested to play a role inthe development of myopia.
Other than genetic factors, environment isadditionally a paramount contributing factor in the development of myopia.Studies on populations with very kindred genetic backgrounds that grew up indifferent environments have shown that those growing up in rural environmentshave a lower prevalence of myopia. Environmental influencescognate to perpetuated reading or near work as well as fewer hours spentalfresco are associated with a higher prevalence of myopia. A systematic reviewand meta-analysis to identify the sodality between time spent alfresco andmyopia denoted a 2% reduced odds of myopia per supplemental hour of time spent perweek after adjustment for covariates. In the study, the sodality between nearwork and myopia designated a 2% incremented odds of myopia per supplementaldioptre hour of time spent on near work per week (Huang et al.
, 2015). Most of the recent studiesinvolve students or children below 12 years old for their subjects as theystill undergoes emmetropization process and this required them to docycloplegic refraction to relax the accommodation to get precise power of theocular perceivers. Furthermore, in the present study the authentic parentalrefractive error is one of the consequential risk factors for the children’smyopia was obtained directly. It was found that children who spent more timealfresco inclined to have a less myopic refraction in the low near workactivity subgroup. However, these results were still equivocal because theeffects do not follow a clear dose-replication and furthermore, the interactionbetween near work and time alfresco was not consequential (Lin et al.
,2014).This can withal occurbecause of interaction between parental myopia and close reading distance. Itis likely that comportments during reading contributed to this sodality.However, it remains obscure whether children with myopic parents may inherit asusceptibility to certain reading or whether these are simply a consequence offollowing parental reading demeanors, close reading distance, perpetual readingand others (Li et al., 2015).
This can be support by cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on Chinese urban children that found an sodality between nearwork/alfresco activity and myopia/myopic progression (Lin et al., 2017).