Name: Naveen Reddy Student Number: 1004540794Date: 27.01.2018What kind(s) of authority do Aideed Jr, Miloševi?, and Pope Francis exercise? Discuss at least two of these figures.
Authority refers to “the power or right to give orders, make decisions, and enforce obedience”. Authority directly derives from legitimacy, expertise, social standing. The foundation of authority derives from the legitimate use of power to make changes and decisions. Weber’s definition of the state is very closely related to authority.Weber refers to the state as “having the monopoly over the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory”.
Through possessing authority, an individual or a group has the ability to exercise power and force over others who do not possess authority. Weber classifies authority comes in three forms namely; Traditional, Charismatic and Legal-Rational. Each of them has a form of legitimacy to exercise power over others. The traditional form of authority refers to authority derived from tradition, custom and in most cases, directly from God. The concept of patriarchal inheritance of power is a part of traditional authority.
Another form of traditional authority is the divine right of the monarchs which is ordained by God. Pope Francis and Aideed will fall under this category as both their authority is derived from tradition and god respectively. Charismatic leadership or authority diverts away from tradition and custom and focuses on the individual’s personal traits, such as; heroism, visionary leadership, passion. Charismatic, as the word says it, is based on one’s charisma. The ability to influence, motivate and because desired change is what makes one charismatic and provides the legitimacy to exercise power and influence over others. Lastly, legal-rational authority is what we have at present in most parts of the world. This form of authority is based on a rational set of rules and a legitimate legal structure.
This form of authority possesses the highest form of legitimacy out of the three forms as it is the basis of what most countries are founded upon. Milosevic’s presidency derives its authority through the legal structure and rationally set rules that Yugoslavia follows. Although Milosevic went on trial for going against the legal structure and committing heinous deeds such as genocide and war crimes.
The authoritarian figures mentioned are to be classified under these three forms of authority. The foundation of these forms of authority derives from how one possesses the legitimacy to possess power and influence over others. Hussein Aideed Jr was just a typical American citizen who was counting potholes to make a living. The transition takes place from being a typical civilian to a warlord in Somalia. He attained power due to the biological relationship with his father and his other traits or history hardly mattered. He attained power because of tradition, making him possess traditional authority. He lived most of adult life in America and had minimal roots to Somalia. There were better candidates who know the land better and probably would have better political skills than Aideed.
In the end, it all comes down to tradition. This does not necessarily imply that Aideed was not skilled at all. Aideed was in the U.S Marines and possessed exemplary skills.
He incorporated his experience, and skills he learnt in the marines to reorganise and strengthen their militia. A few elements of charismatic leadership can be deduced as he is a figurehead and a role model for the citizens and the younger generation. His differences separated him from the other Somalian warlords. His history in the U.S gave him values and qualities that made him different.
He introduced the internet to Somalia which was an alien subject to Somalian citizens and it helped them learn and let Somalian citizens be exposed to the external world. Pope Francis is another example of a person holding a form of authority over others, but the basis and the extent of that authority differ from that of Aideed. Pope Francis derives power and authority directly from God.