Native American Literature

Native American Literaure was used to communicate what?
ideas and beliefs.

Native American literature was viewed many as what kind of literature?
folklore

What four things did Native American Literature typically relate to?
Tribal knowledge, customs, rituals, values

What are five types of Native American literature?
song lyrics, hero tales, migration legends, accounts of creation

What were these five types of literature valued for?
Content

Was was the language used in Native American literature like?
poetic and moving

What three reasons did Native American’s have for using repetition in their literature?
As a memory aid, to instruct the listener in tribal ceremonies, and to move the listener emotionally.

How was Native American literature reworded?
In pictographs or symbols

What kind of interaction was shown in Native American literature?
interaction with nature

Prose and poetry in Native American literature differ in what three ways?
purpose, form, and content

What is rhythmically intoned to tell adventures of humans, animals, and supernatural beings; recount ancient times, beliefs, values, and info passed on in Native American Literature?
prose

What type of writing symblized that everything in the world has life and purpose and every event is significant in Native American literature?
poetry

Poetry uses magical power of _____ to connent with the mysterious ______.
language, world

When were poetry and prose used?
special occasions

What did poetry and prose deal with?
mystical experiences or symbolic meanings of things or events

How were poems and prose produced vocally?
sung or chanted rhythmically.

What musical instrument were poems and prose accompanied by when produced vocally?
drums

Each tribe has ______ names for their spiritual power.
different

What are four named that Gods are typically called in Native American Literature?
Manitou, Manito, Great Spirit, Great Magician

Animals are the source of what two things for humans?
life and good

Each creature in nature contains its own ____ by which it _____ itself and _____ others.
power, maintains, affects.

What is a traditional story involving immortals passed down from generation to generation?
myth

How are myths passed down?
From generation to generation

Myths are almost always connected with what?
religious rituals and explaining the world the people live in and their traditions

The coyote symbolizes what?
trickster

According to the poem in our book, what endures and what doesn’t?
Earth endures, man doesn’t.

Who is seen as very wise in Native American culture?
Elderly

Indian mth where land is covered in water and a creature has to go get dirt from the bottom and put in on (typically) the turtles back
Earth Diver Myth

What is North American sometimes called because of the Eath Diver Myth?
Turtle Island

In the Sky Tree, the rooting f the tree is a symbl of what?
sustaining life

Myths attempt to do what?
Bring meaning to human existence and teach ideals and values of culture

What are the three types of myths?
creation, heroic, trickster

Trickster myths demonstrate the qualities of what stage of life?
Early stage

The most undeveloped strage of life is dominated by what?
physical appetities

A key figure who brings a tribe its maor ceremonies, customs, and spiritual insights
cultural deity

What is the major literary element in Native American literature?
symbolism

He made the world, He made humans, He made animals….is an example of what?
Repetition/Parallel Construction

What does repetition/parallel construction help do?
build emotion

Why is 12 an important number?
It represents a life cycle

What is 4 an important number?
It is a sacred number.

What does corn symbolize?
life

Life originates from ______.
nature

What does wind do?
gives life

What six things do myths try to explain?
natural phenomena, mysteries of nature, origin of humans, customs, events beyond people’s control, and religious rights of people.

What are the two kinds of myths?
etiological and euhemeristic

What is an etiological myth?
attemps to explain why

What is an euhemeristic myth?
Has some basis in historical fact

Old, imaginative parrern repeated thorough the ages
archetype

What three things can an archtype be?
plot, character, image

What role do archetypes usually take?
hero or central character

What are four examples of archetypes?
bikers, nerds, life-giving tree, trickster

What does a deer symbolize?
wisdom

How did Native Americans believe wisdom came?
age and experience

What trait is the eagle?
powerful

What are five things songs were used for?
work, lullibies, lovemaking, ridicule, boasting

What type of singing was popular?
group or solo

True or false? Some songs were owned as property to be sold or inherited.
True.

Songs were often interspersed with what?
tales

Native American poetry began as what?
songs

Was the fact that songs became poems intentional?
no

What seven things identify Native American song style?
monophonic, repeated lines and images, certain images and comparison used often (especially nature images), strong sense of oneness with nature, regular beat, lines had same number of accented syllables (beats), personification

What does monophonic mean?
single melody, no harmony

The rhythmic speaking or singing of words or sounds, often primarily on one or two pitches called reciting tones
chants

What are the one or two pitches chants are sung on called?
reciting tones

True or false? Chants may range from simple to complicated.
true

True or false? Chants used a lot of repetition.
True.

Chants are commonly used in what kind of practice?
spiritual

Chants are used in a variety of settings from _____ to _____.
rituals, recreation

Name four ways chants were used.
battle cries, sports contests, protests, lullabies

What is a metamorphoses?
a change in something

Coyote is an archetype of what in the myth we read in class?
Earth mother.