Native American Literaure was used to communicate what?
ideas and beliefs.
Native American literature was viewed many as what kind of literature?
What four things did Native American Literature typically relate to?
Tribal knowledge, customs, rituals, values
What are five types of Native American literature?
song lyrics, hero tales, migration legends, accounts of creation
What were these five types of literature valued for?
Was was the language used in Native American literature like?
poetic and moving
What three reasons did Native American’s have for using repetition in their literature?
As a memory aid, to instruct the listener in tribal ceremonies, and to move the listener emotionally.
How was Native American literature reworded?
In pictographs or symbols
What kind of interaction was shown in Native American literature?
interaction with nature
Prose and poetry in Native American literature differ in what three ways?
purpose, form, and content
What is rhythmically intoned to tell adventures of humans, animals, and supernatural beings; recount ancient times, beliefs, values, and info passed on in Native American Literature?
What type of writing symblized that everything in the world has life and purpose and every event is significant in Native American literature?
Poetry uses magical power of _____ to connent with the mysterious ______.
When were poetry and prose used?
What did poetry and prose deal with?
mystical experiences or symbolic meanings of things or events
How were poems and prose produced vocally?
sung or chanted rhythmically.
What musical instrument were poems and prose accompanied by when produced vocally?
Each tribe has ______ names for their spiritual power.
What are four named that Gods are typically called in Native American Literature?
Manitou, Manito, Great Spirit, Great Magician
Animals are the source of what two things for humans?
life and good
Each creature in nature contains its own ____ by which it _____ itself and _____ others.
power, maintains, affects.
What is a traditional story involving immortals passed down from generation to generation?
How are myths passed down?
From generation to generation
Myths are almost always connected with what?
religious rituals and explaining the world the people live in and their traditions
The coyote symbolizes what?
According to the poem in our book, what endures and what doesn’t?
Earth endures, man doesn’t.
Who is seen as very wise in Native American culture?
Indian mth where land is covered in water and a creature has to go get dirt from the bottom and put in on (typically) the turtles back
Earth Diver Myth
What is North American sometimes called because of the Eath Diver Myth?
In the Sky Tree, the rooting f the tree is a symbl of what?
Myths attempt to do what?
Bring meaning to human existence and teach ideals and values of culture
What are the three types of myths?
creation, heroic, trickster
Trickster myths demonstrate the qualities of what stage of life?
The most undeveloped strage of life is dominated by what?
A key figure who brings a tribe its maor ceremonies, customs, and spiritual insights
What is the major literary element in Native American literature?
He made the world, He made humans, He made animals….is an example of what?
What does repetition/parallel construction help do?
Why is 12 an important number?
It represents a life cycle
What is 4 an important number?
It is a sacred number.
What does corn symbolize?
Life originates from ______.
What does wind do?
What six things do myths try to explain?
natural phenomena, mysteries of nature, origin of humans, customs, events beyond people’s control, and religious rights of people.
What are the two kinds of myths?
etiological and euhemeristic
What is an etiological myth?
attemps to explain why
What is an euhemeristic myth?
Has some basis in historical fact
Old, imaginative parrern repeated thorough the ages
What three things can an archtype be?
plot, character, image
What role do archetypes usually take?
hero or central character
What are four examples of archetypes?
bikers, nerds, life-giving tree, trickster
What does a deer symbolize?
How did Native Americans believe wisdom came?
age and experience
What trait is the eagle?
What are five things songs were used for?
work, lullibies, lovemaking, ridicule, boasting
What type of singing was popular?
group or solo
True or false? Some songs were owned as property to be sold or inherited.
Songs were often interspersed with what?
Native American poetry began as what?
Was the fact that songs became poems intentional?
What seven things identify Native American song style?
monophonic, repeated lines and images, certain images and comparison used often (especially nature images), strong sense of oneness with nature, regular beat, lines had same number of accented syllables (beats), personification
What does monophonic mean?
single melody, no harmony
The rhythmic speaking or singing of words or sounds, often primarily on one or two pitches called reciting tones
What are the one or two pitches chants are sung on called?
True or false? Chants may range from simple to complicated.
True or false? Chants used a lot of repetition.
Chants are commonly used in what kind of practice?
Chants are used in a variety of settings from _____ to _____.
Name four ways chants were used.
battle cries, sports contests, protests, lullabies
What is a metamorphoses?
a change in something
Coyote is an archetype of what in the myth we read in class?