.Oral bring up children in both Nigeria, which

.Oral history is the compilation of historical recordings through a means of interviews form tape recording from people who have had first hand experienced and have a personal understanding of a particular event or period of time. Oral history has been a form of transferring knowledge for many centuries, and one of the main sources in educating us and proven knowledge of past events, including the evolution of childhood and how it has changed. The participant for this interview will be referred to as Grandma F. Grandma F has experienced a different type of childhood from what we know it to be today as well as seen the evolution of it, making her a perfect participant in this. She was born in Nigeria, Africa in 1948. In her fulfilled life, she married a successful doctor, lived through a great career as a nurse and she gave birth to 3 children who have all grown up to lead spectacular lives of their own and have their own children. Grandma F will be taking part in a one on one semi-structured interview. Her first language is Yoruba, one of the many languages spoken in Nigeria. Due to this, her answers to the questions have been translated in the most part.  The key aspects of this interview will focus on her upbringing and she will also discuss whether her upbringing or the upbringing of her children was most effective. She will be asked questions based on her experience of upbringing and what it was like to bring up children in both Nigeria, which is a country devoted to tradition and culture and England. Granada F will be asked questions based on being raised as a child in Nigeria and the effects as well as her views and perspectives.When preparing this interview, a few ethical issues arose. In order to ensure the interview was as ethical as it could be, precautions were taken and put in place beforehand. Firstly, Grandma F had the option to reveal her real name or use an alias to ensure anonymity. It was made clear to Grandma F that she had the right to withdraw at anytime before, during or after the interview for whatever reason, which she did not need to disclose. The purpose of this interview was made clear to Grandam F – purely for research basis – and she was assured on how the information will be shared and used. And how it will not be disclosed anywhere else without her full consent.The interview questions were based on 4 main concepts which were as followed; culture, religion, education and how did her upbringing play any part in the way she raised her children.Being raised in an African country, it is expected that culture plays a substantial part in her upbringing, what the interview seeks to understand is how substantial the role plays and her experience from it as a child.The first question put forward was what role did the Nigerian culture play in your life as a child? “We take culture very importantly, not like children today. If I had the same attitude as my grandchildren towards culture, it would have been a different outcome!”She underpinned certain aspects of the culture such as how respect towards elders was a major virtue. There was a certain way in which she would talk to and refer to those who were older than her, regardless of the age difference. Such as not calling them by their first name. She referred to it as “rude and demeaning to call an elder by their first name, they deserve respect and calling them aunty, uncle, mummy or daddy shows that. And someday the children showing the respect to the adults will become old, and they will expect the same thing” From her tone, and the way she was speaking about this topic, it could be inferred that she saw this of great importance. however, she states how as a child she didn’t understand it but because she respected her parents, she never questioned it.This falls on similar lines of the unquestioned dependency of children and their innate understanding of certain aspects of life. However, at this age, children are known for their inquisitive spirit. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development underpins how at a certain age, it becomes crucial for the child to ask questions in order to understand the world around them. Piaget defines it as the concrete operational stage which occurs between the ages of 7 to 11. During this stage of development, Piaget says that the child begins to form logical structures and conceptualize through questioning and experimenting with their immediate environment. “When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it” (MM, 2018)This suggests how due to the upbringing in such strict culture has led to the lowering of certain statues of a child as they grow up. Not to say that it has been removed permanently, but in some cases, repressed. She added that as a child, there are certain aspects you learn not to question because, as Grandma F’s mother use to say, “The answer will not add to your life or situation”. And this is the attitude Grandma F carried.The family is a key aspect of the culture in Nigeria. Guided by hierarchy, the family is the nucleus of the culture. However, it is not seen as it would traditionally be seen today. There are aspects of the family in such a cultural country that will not be the same in countries that do not share many similarities such as England. For example, extended families were highly regarded in this culture and defined as the norm. In fact, this aspect still remains the same. When in seek of financial aid, or personal guidance, individuals turn the highest member of the family, normally the oldest. In regards to social recognition, extended families hold the most social value. Thi leads to the second topic for the interview, which was can you describe what your family was like? Grandma F was the second born of 4, she lived in a compound with her siblings, parents, grandmother and her mother’s younger sister. She then went on to depict what a regular day with her family would be.Grandma F and her two younger sisters would be up at five am in order to clean, fetch water and ensure the maintenance of the house. Up until the age of 15, her mother would also wake up to guide the children. At six am, the rest of the household would wake up for morning devotion which is traditional in many Christian households, this is where the family would pray together before starting their busy individual plans for the day. After this, the children would prepare for school and the parents for work. While her mother’s sister would stay home during the day to cater to the needs of the Grandma F’s grandma. Upon returning from school, the children would settle to do any school work and discuss their day with their parents before beginning to with their mother for the whole household who would then eat dinner together as a family. This contributed to how bonded the family were.Grandma F explained how the family was of the highest importance. She explained how from a young age, she had to keep the untarnished name of her family wherever she went. And as the eldest daughter, she had to keep her younger siblings in constant check. This describes how much pressure there was in order to remain an esteemed member of the family, especially from such a young age. She was already conducting her life as an adult. This is similar to the former construction of childhood. The ideas of Ariès in 1962 made us believe how children didn’t explicitly have what we call a childhood and did not experience it the same way in which it is experienced today. Children went from babies to mini adults who had to build their endurance and independence from a young age. “Aries has an extreme view on childhood as a social construction. He argues that in the Middle Ages (the 10th to the 13th century) ‘the idea of childhood did not exist’ – children were not seen as essentially different to adults like they are today.” (Thompson, 2018)Similar to the childhood of Grandma F, especially as she was the eldest daughter, her role was similar to that of a mother.The next topic of questioning was religion. Nigeria is known for the serious status of religion, with its occupants with beliefs being Muslim, while Christianity follows behind with 40%. (Guide and Guide, 2018)Religion is taken very seriously but to what extent did it affect Grandma F, and how?Grandma F went on to say how most of her childhood and even adulthood was guided by religion. Although sometimes, as a child, she was reluctant to realize the importance of it. Now as an adult, she understands how much of an effect it has had on her. “As a child, my mother used to take me and my brother and sisters to church 3 times a week, Tuesday, Friday, and Sunday. Most of the time I didn’t want to go because I found boring, it was aimed at the adults but I was dragged along. However, it was in this church I met closest friends and the person who would turn out to become my husband. As I grew older, the church and my faith became very important to me and I’m grateful my mother brought me up in faith.”Similarly to the Reformation that took place in the early 16th century, Christian parents believed that in order for their children to gain salvation, they must understand the Bible through the church. This was taken very seriously and kept as a priority.Grandma F went on to speak about why it was very important for her. She said that being in the church constantly encouraged certain traits that she would still use today, such as showing love and kindness to others, being forgiving and showing mercy, being patient as well as other things that continued to keep her morale up. And she would later create a new church experience for herself and family. Education in Nigeria is a completely different system to what most are used to and is seen as very competitive in some aspects. Grandma F attend primary, secondary and university in Nigeria, and from having her own children, she realized the difference and that is what motivated her to take her children back to Nigeria in order to receive the best education they could.”Growing up back home, education was very important and being named first in the class was what everyone worked towards, especially in secondary school. At the end of every term, they would tell everyone their ranking in that class. God help the child that came last.””Averagely, where did you place?” “Well I’ve placed first at least twice, but I have never placed below fifth place. My parents were very proud but still wanted to know why I never always placed first. They used to ask if the child that placed first had 2 heads!””What does that mean?””It means that I and the child who placed first are no different, we all have the opportunity to read our books as much as anybody else so why would another person get first if we both have the same opportunities. Its an old adage in Nigeria”The extract is taken directly from the interview really puts into context the type of pressure children face from a young age in order to excel in school as well as reach their parent’s expectations. Grandma F went on to say that although it was difficult, she did very well in secondary and throughout the university and she really appreciated that external push or drive from her classmates and parent to excel. However, we can see just how effective it was for her particular case, although it was not unheard of children to break down under such pressure, although it was not the norm.Grandma F’s family were deeply religious and encouraged their children to follow the Bible, including how men are created to be more significant in household affairs. Gender is still an ongoing argument in relation to equality. Grandma f was asked if this affected her in any way. She began to relate how it definitely affected her. She explained how her eldest brother was treated as if he was the head of the household, while she and her sisters were cleaning in the morning, he remained in bed. “Even my uncles used to question my mother why they are sending us to school, and we should be trained to look after our homes”  While the girls were cooking, he was doing nothing. She further explained how even in school, the boys were naturally held in higher esteem than the girls, so the girls had to work twice as hard to be recognized. In such a traditional county, it is not hard to believe that in the 1950’s and 1960’s, there was still a large gender bias. Before the 19th century, western society also had the same mindset. The woman was to be trained in maintaining the household and raising the children. While men are taught to go out and work. In line with this, Anselmi and Law  wrote that gender is “socially and culturally defined prescriptions and beliefs about the behavior and emotions of men and women” (1998, p. 195. As cited in Family.jrank.org, 2018)It’s interesting to hear how continental differences did not affect the same mindset in relation to gender roles.Grandma F explained her gratitude towards her mother for ensuring her and her siblings attend school regardless of comments from other family members.The final topic for discussion was how her upbringing played a role in how Grandma F would raise her own children. Grandma F stated how much she believed the education system was better and much more effective in Nigeria than in England, this is what motivated her decision to ensure her children were schooled there. After giving birth to all three children, she decided to move back to her home county. she also stated how she didn’t want her children to lose the culture of Nigeria and wanted it to be passed on to her grandchildren, and great-grandchildren, and so on. She was asked if she would implement aspects from her childhood onto her children’s childhood, Grandma F stated she carried on her family tradition of waking up in the morning to gather and pray. As she felt that it really bonded her family together and she aspired the same for her own family. She also stated how she appreciated her mother’s role in her religion and was to do the same with her children. She was asked if there were any parenting methods she did not particularly like or agree with, after pondering the question, she said how there was nothing major she did not like about her childhood and would use similar methods with her children. However, in the ever-evolving society of Nigeria, she could not expect the same outcome from her own childhood but was still willing to ensure they develop the same respect of for them self, their family and their country as she was raised to do.After conducting the interview it became clear how the substantial differences of upbringing in different countries affect the outcome of the child in their opinions and views as well as how beneficial the experience was for her. Childhood is every changing and continuously evolving, analyzing childhood from different perspectives, especially first hand, helps in giving a more developed understanding of how exactly childhood has changed and what aspects have had the most effects. As well as what aspects remain the same regardless of your continental location. These are just a few of the man benefits of oral history. Of course, Grandma F faced several hardships throughout her life, but she can be considered as a unique individual that against all odds did exceptionally well throughout her life. Grandma F regards this to her parents strict perspective and her mother’s enforcement of religion.