Organisation and for sense of satisfaction. A functional


can be defined as a management action that involves:

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out roles and resources



together, structuring and grouping activities in the company. (Cole, 1996)

The two
different structures in an organisation are formal or informal. Formal structures
are shown by an organizational chart. Informal structures do not have official
working relationships and people shadow the organisation but can be critical.
They can also gain access to networks that are interpersonal. In an informal
structure, employees are likely to join small groups to be social, have
acceptance, for friendship, and for sense of satisfaction. A functional
structure is used in a departmental organisation. This
is when formal units are made by groups of people who have similar skills. A
divisional structure puts people into groups who are working on the same process
or product that service the same customer. (Schermerhorn, 1998)

O’Hara, manager of a drama school uses informal communication between
co-workers and herself. She uses formal emails and texts to communicate with
the parents of her students. This organisation does not have any departments as
it is very small. O’Hara employs people on flexible working hours and when
recruiting, she looks for people with “a passion for performance, literature
and music”.

A new
organisational structure used in modern organisations is called the matrix
structure. It is a structure that looks like a grid and creates project teams
by combining divisional and traditional functional structures. This can cause
challenges in organisations in many ways. With a two-boss system it makes it
more likely to cause conflict over power between bosses. A lot of team meetings
can also be time consuming and create confusion in tasks. Other challenges an
organisation can face is with the use of the network structure. This is when a
company separates individuals by outsourcing major roles and keeps a small HQ.
Disadvantages of this structure includes challenges with coordination of the
system of relationships and issues with quality control. (Schermerhorn, 1998)


Control in
an organisation is checking and correcting performances to make sure that the
objectives are completed. A control system allows for management to check up on
the performance of their staff and assure that the right things happen at the
right time. Control is extremely important as goals need to be scheduled,
planning must occur, and organisational structures need to be set. It aids
managers to find out why plans have not been completed and what actions need to
be done in the future. (Robbins, et al., 2014)

O’Hara believes that control as a concept has a bad image. Although she does
think that it is necessary for a manager “to have control of a business as they
must be aware of all aspects of the organisation and keep up with developments
and changes as they occur”. As a manager herself, she says that she does not
need to micro manage everything. Ultimately, all the decisions come back to her
as she says that “it is my business and my baby”. If a staff member is
underperforming O’Hara would try to find out why because she thinks that there
is usually a good reason why they would be underperforming and that a good conversation
will usually reveal what is behind it.

The four
steps in the control process are:                                                                                                                      
1- Setting Standards. This is measuring performances and work efforts
that go into tasks.                                  2- Assess
Performance. To do this you must interact with employees and take note of their
body language.                                                                        
Compare how the results differ to the standards. If there is a difference
between the results and standards, then action must take place.                                                                                                    4-
Put corrective action into place. You can do this by changing strategy,
training, structure or letting the employee go. (Robbins, et al., 2014)

controls what systems are in place for the IT systems by “simple email, excel
and phone communications”. As for assets/stock, she does not have any because
she rents space for classes. For financial control, she documents everything,
keeps every receipt and submits tax returns.


Cole, G., 1996. Management
Theory and Practice. London: s.n.
Robbins, S. P., Coulter, M. & De Cenzo, D., 2014. Fundamentals
of Management. 10 ed. s.l.:Pearson.
Schermerhorn, J. R., 1998. Management. 6th ed.