Osteoarthritis slumped posture in efforts to alleviate some

Osteoarthritis of the Spine:Marijke BlutoTamalpais High School Table Of Contents: Table of Contents……………………………………………………………………………2Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………3What is Osteoarthritis………………………………………………………………………4Homeostatic Imbalance in Osteoarthritis…………………………………………………….5Laminectomy Treatments for Osteoarthritis…………………………………………………6Rheumatologist Carriers……………………………………………………………………..8Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………..9Works Cited Page……………………………………………………………………………10Osteoarthritis of the SpineMany people get diagnosed with Osteoarthritis in their spine as they age, but oftentimes  have no background knowledge of the disease and are unable to get relief from pain. Osteoarthritis in simple terms is a degenerative form of arthritis that only affects the cartilage in the joints in your body ( NIAMS, 2017). In this research paper, the topics being discussed include the following. A general overview of Osteoarthritis in the spine and how it’s caused. How homeostatic imbalances affect the progression or cause of Osteoarthritis in the spine. How a laminectomy helps partially treat Osteoarthritis and finally, what kind of carrier you would have if dealing with spinal Osteoarthritis. What is Osteoarthritis and what causes it to occur?What is Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis of the spine is a degenerative disease, meaning it causes a breakdown of protective cartilage at the end of your bones. This causes the bones in your body to rub against each other inducing pain (Mayo Clinic, 2016). Osteoarthritis of the spine is the breakdown of the cartilage in specifically the joints and discs of the spine in the neck and back (Spinal Osteoarthritis, n.d.). The main symptoms of Osteoarthritis include pain and stiffness within the affected region. Pain is typically heightened with cold weather, standing, and is more persistent in the evening. ( Gower, Timothy, 2016) Patients with osteoarthritis in the spine have very limited motion of the lumbar spine and limited chest expansion due to the pain. They have sometimes been seen with a slumped posture in efforts to alleviate some of the pain in their backs. (Osteoarthritis of the Spine, n.d.)Etiology of OsteoarthritisThe cause of Osteoarthritis is due to the breakdown of cartilage in the joints. The risk of Osteoarthritis in the spine increases with age and is typical for adults aged sixty five or older. (Mayo Clinic, 2016). Obesity also increases the risk of developing osteoarthritis. Extra weight increases the amount of stress in the joints of the spine making it easier for joints to rub against each other and rub away. (Mayo Clinic, 2016). Fat tissue can also produce harmful proteins that increase inflammation within and around your spinal joints (Mayo Clinic, 2016).  Another common cause of osteoarthritis is a faster breakdown of cartilage due to a past or current injury to specific joint(s). (Higuera, V. 2016, November 28) Homeostatic Imbalances in Osteoarthritis Homeostasis is the ability for the body or cells to maintain stability within the body’s internal environment despite external activities. (Homeostasis, n.d.). General Overview of Normal Homeostasis in JointsCartilage in the joints are made up of chondrocytes that produce extracellular matrix. Chondrocytes can be found together as groups called isogenic groups. Extracellular matrix consists of collagen, elastin, proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans. (Intercellular matrix, n.d.). Chondrocytes line joints creating a cellular layer and produces synovial fluid which provides lubrication to the surface of bones(Intercellular matrix, n.d.). Extracellular matrix are in a state catabolic and anabolic events of the chondrocytes. Also known as breaking down and repairing the matrix of the cartilage (Intercellular matrix, n.d.).The process of catabolic and anabolic events is an example of the homeostatic process of degeneration and repair of the cartilage.Effects of Osteoarthritis on Anabolic and Catabolic Events An imbalance occurring during this process might be the primary cause of Osteoarthritis. (How will it progress? (n.d.). “The progressive degeneration of articular cartilage indicates that the normal balance of chemical reaction activities of the chondrocytes has been severely disrupted.” (Guilak, F, 2001). If the catabolic events take place more often due to lack of anabolic events, the cartilage will begin to wear away faster than it can be repaired causing Osteoarthritis (Intercellular matrix, n.d.).Laminectomy: a Technological Advancement in the Treatment of OsteoarthritisVery few medical advancement have been made, that have been fully tested, that  make a huge difference on pain levels in osteoarthritis of the spine that last for more than a few weeks. However, a surgical procedure called a laminectomy does infact help reduce pain.  What is a LaminectomyA Laminectomy surgery helps create space by removing parts of the lamina (Laminectomy, 2018). This is the back part of a vertebra that covers part of the spinal canal. A laminectomy is also known as a decompression surgery (Laminectomy, 2018). In a laminectomy, the surgeon will remove part of the bone from the vertebrae to help relieve pressure from the spinal cord and nerves. There are roughly six steps to complete a laminectomy procedure (Gower, Timothy, 2016).                                                                                                                                                   How it works According to Timothy Gower, the procedure will go as follows. “Before starting the procedure the surgeon will clean the skin over the surgical site with an antiseptic solution to help prevent a bacterial infection. First the surgeon will make a small incision, or cut, in the middle of your back or neck. Then, he/she will remove part or all of the lamina bones in your spine. From there he/she will remove the bone spurs and small disk fragments that have occurred. After that, he/she will close the incision made with stitches and will cover them with sterile bandages to stop infection from happening (Gower, Timothy, 2016). During the procedure, your surgeon may also perform a spinal fusion, in which two or more bones are connected in the back to better stabilize the spine. Your surgeon may also perform a foraminotomy to widen the area where the nerve roots go through the spine.” (Gower, Timothy, 2016).                                                                                                                                         Rheumatology What the Job Entails A Rheumatologist is a doctor that has gone through specialized training, after becoming an internist or a pediatrician, in the diagnosis and treatment of Rheumatic diseases (What is a Rheumatologist, n.d.). Rheumatic diseases are a mix of autoimmune diseases and musculoskeletal diseases (What is a Rheumatologist, n.d.). They diagnose and treat autoimmune diseases, different types of arthritis, and other musculoskeletal diseases (What is Rheumatology, n.d.).Education and Training needed to become a Rheumatologist Before a rheumatologist starts specialized training they need to complete a few educational requirements first. They must have completed at least three years of college education or obtained a undergraduate degree before being accepted into medical school. Once accepted, they must complete four years of school and obtain a Doctor of Medicine degree or a Doctor of Osteopathy degree (Rheumatologist training, n.d.). They must then complete a three year residency training at a hospital of their choice in either general internal medicine, or pediatrics (Rheumatologist training, n.d.). From there, they need to complete another two to three years doing a rheumatology fellowship to get their rheumatology board certification (Rheumatologist training, n.d.).ConclusionIn conclusion, Osteoarthritis of the spine is a degenerative disease that causes the cartilage to wear away inducing bone on bone that then rubs against each other. It can cause major pain. However, there is a surgery called a laminectomy, that can alleviate pressure in the spine allowing the pain to go away. The doctor that performs these laminectomies would be a rheumatologist. They specialize in diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases, arthritis, and other musculoskeletal diseases. Works Cited PageGower, Timothy  (2016, June 26) Retrieved October 17, 2017, from http://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/back-pain/articles/oa-and-back-pain.phpGuilak, F. (2011, December). Biomechanical factors in osteoarthritis. Retr.ieved October 17, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3266544/  Higuera, V. (2016, November 28). Osteoarthritis of the Spine. Retrieved October 17, 2017, from https://www.healthline.com/health/osteoarthritis-spine#causes3Homeostasis. (n.d.). Retrieved November 07, 2017, from http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/HomeostasisHow will it progress? (n.d.). Retrieved October 17, 2017, from http://ihaveosteoarthritis.com/how-will-it-progress/   Intercellular matrix. (n.d.). Retrieved November 07, 2017, from http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/IntercellularmatrixLaminectomy. (2018, January 09). Retrieved January 09, 2018, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/laminectomy/basics/definition/prc-20009521Mayo Clinic Osteoarthritis (2016, August 16). Retrieved October 17, 2017, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/osteoarthritis/symptoms-causes/syc-20351925 NIAMS Health Information on Osteoarthritis. (2017, October 04). Retrieved November 07, 2017, from https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/osteoarthritisOsteoarthritis of the Spine. (n.d.). Retrieved October 17, 2017, from http://spinecenter.ucla.edu/osteoarthritis-spine Rheumatologist training (n.d.). Retrieved January 09, 2018, from http://www.healthcommunities.com/rheumatoid-arthritis/what-is-a-rheumatologist.shtmlSpinal Osteoarthritis (n.d.). Retrieved October 17, 2017, from https://www.webmd.com/osteoarthritis/spinal-osteoarthritis-degenerative-arthritis-of-the-spine#1What is a Rheumatologist? (n.d.). Retrieved January 09, 2018, from https://www.rheumatology.org/I-Am-A/Patient-Caregiver/Health-Care-Team/What-is-a-Rheumatologist What is Rheumatology? (n.d.). Retrieved January 09, 2018, from https://rheumatology.org.au/patients/what-is-a-rheumatologist.asp