p.p1 cognitive, emotional and behavioural response to this

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In the 2000’s research of this nature continued and the idea of ‘perceived stress’ was extended to refer to “interactions between an environment precipitate (external stress); the physiological reactions of the body (distress); and a person’s cognitive, emotional and behavioural response to this interaction” (Suldo, Shaunessy & Hardesty, 2008, p. 274). Other international studies confirmed that perceived stress influences individuals’ physical as well as psychological well-being (Pensonen, Raikkonen, Heinonen, & Komsi, 2007; Kim et al., 2009). McNamara (2000) specifically reported that sources of external stress in adolescents included normative stressors, non-normative stressful life events and daily hassles. Later studies confirmed this view with the addition of a few stressors (Eckotlu & Chafia cited in Simuforosa, 2013; Kempf, 2011). 30 

The Measurement of Stress 
Grant, Compas, Thurn, McMahon and Gipson (2004) in their article entitled, “Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: Measurement issues and prospective effects” alludes to the controversial nature of the methodology presented in studies involving the measurement of adolescent stress. These writers reveal that the issue of whether relevant data should be collected by the use of interviews or self-report questionnaires has been debated throughout the literature. The argument is that while interview methods elicit both experiential and contextual detail, such methods are considered to not be ideal for large samples of adolescents because of the lack of anonymity, possibly yielding biased information and because they are too time consuming and labor intensive (Grant et al., 2004). Self-report questionnaires however would seem to be more popular in stu