Parallelism and Rhetorical Modes

figure of balance identified by similarity in the synthetical structure of a set of words, in successive phrases, clauses, and sentences

Parallelism Example
“Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty.

“– John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address

contrasting elements are purposefully juxtaposed

Antithesis Example
“Serenity now; insanity later.” — from Seinfeld episode “The Serenity Now”

when first word or sets of words are repeated very near or at the beginning

Anaphora Example
Yesterday, the Japanese government also launched an attack against Malaya. Last night, Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong. Last night, Japanese forces attacked Guam. Last night, Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands.

Last night, the Japanese attacked Wake Island. And this morning, the Japanese attacked Midway Island.” — Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Pearl Harbor Address

words are arranged in order of increasing intensity or importance

Climax Example
“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.” — John 1:1-2 (KJV)

last word or set of words are repeated at the end of a sentence

Epistrophe Example

and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth.” – Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address

repetition of the first and last words of a sentence over a series of sentences

Symploce Example
“Let us let our own children know that we will stand against the forces of fear. When there is talk of hatred, let us stand up and talk against it. When there is talk of violence, let us stand up and talk against it.”– William Jefferson Clinton, Oklahoma Bombing Memorial Prayer Service Address

Rhetorical Modes
a way or method of presenting a subject aimed at creating the desired effect on the reader

writing the creates imageryusually don’t require sources

Description Example

tells a storyuseful for sequencing

Narration Examples

a comparison, but more poetic in style

persuasive writingmost common in academic writingaim is to end with a call to action

Argument Examples

explaining and analyzing an idea

explaining reasons and the resulting effects

specific meaning of somethingconcrete or abstract

Sentence Definition
usually sits right next to the term that is definedapposition

Extended Definition
uses sentence definition along with other rhetorical devices

more: itemization compare/contrastclassification: in a wholeless: division, smaller parts

Classification/division examples
illustrates through many examples or one in depth

explaining how tooften chronological order