Parallelism and Rhetorical Modes

Parallelism
figure of balance identified by similarity in the synthetical structure of a set of words, in successive phrases, clauses, and sentences

Parallelism Example
“Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty.”– John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address

Antithesis
contrasting elements are purposefully juxtaposed

Antithesis Example
“Serenity now; insanity later.” — from Seinfeld episode “The Serenity Now”

Anaphora
when first word or sets of words are repeated very near or at the beginning

Anaphora Example
Yesterday, the Japanese government also launched an attack against Malaya. Last night, Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong. Last night, Japanese forces attacked Guam. Last night, Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands. Last night, the Japanese attacked Wake Island. And this morning, the Japanese attacked Midway Island.” — Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Pearl Harbor Address

Climax
words are arranged in order of increasing intensity or importance

Climax Example
“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.” — John 1:1-2 (KJV)

Epistrophe
last word or set of words are repeated at the end of a sentence

Epistrophe Example
“…and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth.” – Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address

Symploce
repetition of the first and last words of a sentence over a series of sentences

Symploce Example
“Let us let our own children know that we will stand against the forces of fear. When there is talk of hatred, let us stand up and talk against it. When there is talk of violence, let us stand up and talk against it.”– William Jefferson Clinton, Oklahoma Bombing Memorial Prayer Service Address

Rhetorical Modes
a way or method of presenting a subject aimed at creating the desired effect on the reader

Description
writing the creates imagery
usually don’t require sources

Description Example
-poetry
-journals

Narration
tells a story
useful for sequencing

Narration Examples
-anecdote
-autobiography
-memior

Analogy/Metaphor
a comparison, but more poetic in style

Arguement
persuasive writing
most common in academic writing
aim is to end with a call to action

Argument Examples
review/critique
editorials

Expository
explaining and analyzing an idea

Cause/effect
explaining reasons and the resulting effects

Definition
specific meaning of something
concrete or abstract

Sentence Definition
usually sits right next to the term that is defined
apposition

Extended Definition
uses sentence definition along with other rhetorical devices

Classification/division
more: itemization compare/contrast
classification: in a whole
less: division, smaller parts

Classification/division examples
illustrates through many examples or one in depth

Process
explaining how to
often chronological order