Passivedesign mostly refer to a design approach that uses natural elements, sunlight, heator light a building.
. Passive solar or passive cooling designs take advantageof the sun’s energy to maximize heating or cooling based on a building’s sunexposure. The passive design approach can include the structure of the buildingitself, including building orientation, window placement, skylightinstallation, insulation and building materials, or specific elements of abuilding, such as windows and window shades. Traditional Malay house is famousfor its passive design element. For this study, to proof the effectiveness ofpassive design elements towards Malaysia climate the study of PMTH will be oneexample of the Malay Traditional House. The climate of Malaysia referring to Yuan (1987:68)can be classified as warm-humid equatorial, characterized by high temperaturesand humidity. This problem causes of climatic stress in Malaysia according to Yuan(1987:70) are “…high temperatures, solar radiation, humidity and glare”.Therefore, to achieve thermal comfort all factors that can be used for exampleof good passive design is Malay Traditional House.
According to Lim Jee Yuan’s The MalayHouse: Rediscovering Malaysia’s Indigenous Shelter System.Malaysia, architects nowadays uses Malaytraditional house as a study paradigmfor its excellent interpretation of environmental design, design versatilityand building systems (Lim, 1987). Malay housedesigned need to accommodate the Malaysia climate in relation to considerationsof tropical architecture. Malay Traditional house famous with its naturalventilation because of its built form and spatial design that allow ventilationacross and throughout the house. The planning of the house take many ways thatmake Malay Traditional House suitable in Malaysia climate.
An example of MalayTraditional house that will be studied is Perak Traditional Malay house “Kutai”house. “Kutai” house mostly located along Perak River which can easily find itin the Central District, Lower Perak and Kuala Kangsar which had been builtbetween years 1840s to 1940s.(Ariffin, M.N & Talib, Mara, & Alam, 1996). Selected PTMH willbe studied to identify the benefit of its design element to achieve the thermalcomfort. There’s a lot of passive design elements that PMTHshare with Traditional Malay House elements. Firstly, Traditional Malay houseis raised in floor construction which an ideal solution for coping with grounddampness in the hot and humid tropical climate. One most congenial ofTraditional Malay House is its openness.
The house is divided into areas,rather than rooms, for various social and household activities. The house isdivided into areas, rather than rooms, for various social and householdactivities. Then, the absence of portion or solid ceiling height, wallsseparating the three main area which is veranda, main house and kitchen whichseems to merge naturally with environment,(Nasir 1985).With this study , PMTH will be compare todefine the passive design elements for each house and focusing more onsustainable features present rather than cultural influences. “Kutai” house hasthe same design with a few variations in materials and ornamentation dependingon the owner’s wealth. Some of PMTH passive design elements that can besummarized is from its layout, orientation. Cross ventilation, roof spaceventilation, ventilation at body level, materials, and vegetation.
All thiselements will be use when the site visit and observation process.