Passive House. The climate of Malaysia referring to

Passive
design mostly refer to a design approach that uses natural elements, sunlight, heat
or light a building. . Passive solar or passive cooling designs take advantage
of the sun’s energy to maximize heating or cooling based on a building’s sun
exposure. The passive design approach can include the structure of the building
itself, including building orientation, window placement, skylight
installation, insulation and building materials, or specific elements of a
building, such as windows and window shades. Traditional Malay house is famous
for its passive design element. For this study, to proof the effectiveness of
passive design elements towards Malaysia climate the study of PMTH will be one
example of the Malay Traditional House. The climate of Malaysia referring to Yuan (1987:68)
can be classified as warm-humid equatorial, characterized by high temperatures
and humidity. This problem causes of climatic stress in Malaysia according to Yuan
(1987:70) are “…high temperatures, solar radiation, humidity and glare”.
Therefore, to achieve thermal comfort all factors that can be used for example
of good passive design is Malay Traditional House.

 

     According to Lim Jee Yuan’s The Malay
House: Rediscovering Malaysia’s Indigenous Shelter System.
Malaysia, architects nowadays uses Malay
traditional house as a study paradigm
for its excellent interpretation of environmental design, design versatility
and building systems (Lim, 1987). Malay house
designed need to accommodate the Malaysia climate in relation to considerations
of tropical architecture. Malay Traditional house famous with its natural
ventilation because of its built form and spatial design that allow ventilation
across and throughout the house. The planning of the house take many ways that
make Malay Traditional House suitable in Malaysia climate. An example of Malay
Traditional house that will be studied is Perak Traditional Malay house “Kutai”
house. “Kutai” house mostly located along Perak River which can easily find it
in the Central District, Lower Perak and Kuala Kangsar which had been built
between years 1840s to 1940s.(Ariffin, M.N & Talib, Mara, & Alam, 1996). Selected PTMH will
be studied to identify the benefit of its design element to achieve the thermal
comfort.

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There’s a lot of passive design elements that PMTH
share with Traditional Malay House elements. Firstly, Traditional Malay house
is raised in floor construction which an ideal solution for coping with ground
dampness in the hot and humid tropical climate. One most congenial of
Traditional Malay House is its openness. The house is divided into areas,
rather than rooms, for various social and household activities. The house is
divided into areas, rather than rooms, for various social and household
activities. Then, the absence of portion or solid ceiling height, walls
separating the three main area which is veranda, main house and kitchen which
seems to merge naturally with environment,(Nasir 1985).With this study , PMTH will be compare to
define the passive design elements for each house and focusing more on
sustainable features present rather than cultural influences. “Kutai” house has
the same design with a few variations in materials and ornamentation depending
on the owner’s wealth. Some of PMTH passive design elements that can be
summarized is from its layout, orientation. Cross ventilation, roof space
ventilation, ventilation at body level, materials, and vegetation. All this
elements will be use when the site visit and observation process.