Physical effect of early physical activity on adult

Physical activity is an essential
activity during the stage of adolescence. It contributes to the development of
a normal skeletal growth and weight bearing necessary for adolescents to attain
and maintain their suitable bone mass (Lasheras et al., 2001), and body weight
by increaseing energy expenditure (Woods et al., 2010). Likewise Tomporowski et
al. (2008) and U.S Department of Health and Human Services, (2008), indicated
that children and adolescents who have regular physical activity, experience
greater improvement in their body and mental health. In addition, they have
reduced probability of diseases in the future compared with inactive

For example, participation in regular
physical activity has also been found to decrease the rule-breaking behaviours
and improving behaviour in the classroom. Furthermore, engagement in regular
physical activity and various sports can play an essential role in improving
the social life and social skills among students (Hallal et al., 2006; Woods et
al., 2010).

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Studies have also indicates that
starting of physical activity earlier and having fitness during adolescence are
important determinants of adult fitness at the population level. Furthermore,
children and adolescents with low fitness are more likely to have unfavorable
obesity. Therefore, physical activity programmes can help them to improve and
maintain their fitness(Dwyer et al., 2009).

Moreover, regular physical activity in
adolescence may increase cardiovascular health further during adulthood in
three ways. First, there is a direct relationship between adolescent physical
activity and adult cardiovascular health. Second, the effect of early physical
activity on adult cardiovascular health may be simplifed by following of
physical activity from adolescents to adulthood. Third, early physical activity
increase adolescence cardiovascular health that may improve adult
cardiovascular health (Twisk et al., 2002).


2.6 Physical activity and cognitive function

Cognitive functions can
be defined as cerebral activities which lead to knowledge such as
reasoning, memory, attention, and language. Cognitive abilities are brain-based skills that
need to carry out any task from the simplest to the most complex which is
ability to learn, remember, problem-solve, and pay attention, rather than with
any actual knowledge. Cognitive performances involve narrow academic skill, or
test-taking smarts. Intelligence is very unique in human and can be defined as
a general mental ability for reasoning, problem solving, and learning (Colom et al., 2010). Cognitive
Intelligence is a general mental capability that involves the
ability to reason, plan and solve problems. In addition, there is a strong
belief that regular participation in physical activity is linked to enhancement
of brain function and cognition (Hillman et
al., 2008) thereby positively influencing academic performance (Singh et al., 2012).

activity plays a vital role in inproving cognitive and academic performance
(Ploughman, 2008). Studies have reported that cerebellum activation, besides
enhancing motor functions (Trudeau & Shephard, 2010), influences
neurobehavioral systems such as working memory (Sibley & Etnier, 2003), and
memory (Kramer et al., 2006). In addition, many scientific evidence have
indicated the importance of the front lobes, particularly the prefrontal areas,
in the mediation of cognitive ability such as motor coordination and executive
control (Trudeau & Shephard, 2010).

Several studies measured the volume of
regions of interest in brain showing the most significant correlations
(controlling for total brain volumes) in frontal, parietal, and temporal brain
regions, along with the hippocampus and the cerebellum (Toga and Thompson, 2005; Luders et al., 2009). From this
perspective, the amount of gray and white matter was correlated with
intelligence scores (Haier, Jung and Yeo, 2004, 2005). The most
consistent areas of association between g scores and cortical thickness were
found in lateral prefrontal, occipital extrastriate, and para-hippocampal areas
(Colom, Haier and Head, 2009).

In 1983, Gardner, who suggested seven
different areas of intelligence that function separately from each other in
some degree, has increased this number to eight by adding spiritual intelligence
at 2006 and environmental intelligence dimension was added to become nine
multiple intelligence at 2007 (Tirri and Petri, 2008). There are nine different areas of intelligence which
consist of verbal linguistic intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, visual-spatial
intelligence, musical-rhythmic intelligence, bodily intelligence, interpersonal
intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence spiritual intelligence and
environmental intelligence.

Physical activities involve physical
movement which is increase in cardiac output, vasodilation that can increase
blood flow to the tissue and the brain and improve brain function. So, physical
activity can improve intelligence due to increase blood flow to the brain (Morgan, Corrigan and Baune,
The previous study done by Sibley and Etnier, (2003) among school-age children,
4 to 18 years students, showed a positive association between physical activity
and cognitive function including perceptual skills, intelligence quotient,
academic achievement, verbal tests, mathematics tests, developmental level, and
academic readiness.

More recent evidence from a randomized
controlled trial (Davis et al., 2007)
with highly controlled exercise intervention and a standardized achievement
test indicated that physical activity interventions may have selective effects
on children’s cognition. Aerobic exercise training improved executive function
in overweight children between the ages of 7 and 11 years. Scores on the
Planning scale of the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) were significantly
higher for the children who performed 40 min of aerobic exercise 5 times per
week compared to a control group

In addition, a previous study by Coe (2006)- elaborate study, academic achievement was
assessed from 4 core academic courses (math, science, English, world studies)
and a standardized test (Terra Nova?). Physical
activity outside of school was assessed by 3-day recall. No impact of physical
activity on standardized test scores was observed. However, students with
higher levels of vigorous physical activity outside of school had significantly
higher grades than those who reported no vigorous physical activity.