Poems (Romanticism)

Washing Day
• Anna Letitia Barbauld
• Mock Epic
• Muse is “domestic”. Labor is art
• Experience: Muse is “gossip”. Doesn’t enjoy her job/reality of life. Bitter, disgruntled.
• Dread of rain mocks nature
• Second part mocks how romantics feel about the individual: Reflects on time as child: no cause/effect, youthful voice.
• Imagination: Hot air balloons at end

On Being Cautioned Against Walking On An Headland Overlooking the Sea, Because It Was Frequented by a Lunatic
• Charlotte Smith
• Demonstrates emotion over reason
• emphasis on individual
• Narrator is “corrupted” and trying to escape by going to nature (experienced seeking restoration)
• Lunatic is the opposite of reason. Not aware of danger, lives in nature (innocent)
• Narrator not sure if there is a lunatic, but imagines there is
• Narrator envies him, doesn’t fear him

London’s Summer Morning
• Mary Robinson
• Characters are young at heart (innocent) and working to achieve something (purposeful)
• Nature is positive: Sun is splendor, rain cools feet (restorative/refreshing)
• Poet = Poor (working class)
• Even in routine still find joy in nature
• Work = art
• Landscape is human emotion = urban yet nature breaks thru

Haunted Beach
• Mary Robinson
• Landscape as human emotion
• Nature is commenting on sin, isolates sinner (punishment is not being free in nature)
• Mariner = innocence
• Fisherman = experience, tied to a cycle of death.
• Imagination is supreme faculty, just in a negative way
• Nature is dark, dreary. Scattered, deafening, birds looking for prey
• Repetition in lines: made, strayed, played, away = fisherman’s endless cycle in nature
• wandering in this is bad (ghosts)
• Mariner’s purpose is to be one w/nature, but was murdered.
• winter moon = death

Intro (Innocence)
• William Blake
• Muse is a child/child-like (innocence)
• Rural pen = out of nature
• stained water clear = stained with innocence

Intro (Experience)
• William Blake
• Poet (Bard) is no longer innocent/child like person
• Calls out to the “lapsed soul”
• Fallen light = lost innocence
• Calls to return to earth, nature is restorative
• Last stanza: You have to choose to return to nature, it is here until the apocalypse. If you don’t return to innocence the end will be bad for you

The Echoing Green (Innocence)
• William Blake
• Echoing = moves from generation to generation if we allow it. Must teach
• Experience is a positive thing
• Darkening Green = you have a choice to let it go dark.
• Nature reps life cycle of humans. Kids are used as warning that if you don’t go back and find innocence it will darken

The Little Black Boy (Innocence)
• William Blake
• Soul is white = only soul matters
• As if bereaved of light = how do you see the world
• East = sun rises
• Sun grows things, when soul grows you will go to heaven where everyone is the same
• moral = equality in god’s eyes

The Chimney Sweeper (Innocence)
• William Blake
• Too young to articulate job, stays innocent, job makes clothes black
• Tone is encouragement/thankful
• lambs, coffins (chimneys)
• shaving off hair = innocent being sacrificed
• moral: do work and you will be ok (not true)

The Chimney Sweeper (Experience)
• William Blake
• old enough to articulate but only says weep (exp of situation). Parents abandon to worship god/king
• Tone is anti-religious
• Child is happy in field, parents determine who he is (clothes of death) rob him of innocence
• Heaven of misery: everyone benefits from kid’s sorrow/suffering

Nurse’s Song (Innocence)
• William Blake
• Nurse is teacher, gives nature
• Green = innocence, youth
• Happy to be part of them/raise them

Nurse’s Song (Experience)
• William Blake
• Hears kids voices and is bitter, jealous
• Resents nature
• Spring/day wasted in play = waste youth
• winter/night = disguised in youth
• Green with envy

Lines: Composed A Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey
• William Wordsworth
• About time & consciousness
• Poet as worshiper of nature
• Meditation on self = life writing
• Wants to teach sister to be a good poet, to recollect and stay mobile so she can write for him.
• Meditates on youth/age, inn/exp, power of nature
• Nature effects soul, restorative, teaches by way of spontaneous overflow…

What is a Poet?
• William Wordsworth
• Poets are elevated. They have a divine gift and are habitually compelled to create.
• Only obstacle is imagination.
• Poet shares pleasure with everyone. Science is personal pleasure.
• Poetry is immortal
• Write for men to teach, warn, provide social commentary

Emotion Recollected in Tranquility
• emotion contemplated -> tranquility disappears -> produce the emotion contemplated = results in good poetry
• think -> feel (recall)

Thoughts on My Sick Bed
• Dorothy Wordsworth
• Writing for her teacher (bro)
• Didn’t appreciate nature until later in life
• Understands now (experience)
• Imagination allows her to walk even though stuck in bed
• Has spontaneous overflow
• She was a good student, learned what he wanted her to learn
• Makes imagery simplistic- individual objects and identifies herself as an individual in nature

This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison
• Samuel Taylor Coleridge
• Romantic Pedestrian
• Extreme emotional reaction to immobility
• Uses imagination to walk w/friends
• Wants nature to perform for friends so their poetry can be as good as his
• Thesis: Even though he is immobile his imagination produced a feeling just as good as real thing

Don Juan (Canto 1)
• Lord Byron
• Mock Epic, Byronic Hero
• Doesn’t dismiss Romanticism but treats with irreverence
• 10 commandments is direct stab at poet as prophet
• wanders thru nature and isn’t restored to innocence. Thinks of dirty things. Naive w/ what to do w/nature
• Uses moon in nature, not sun. Moon is darkness & mischief. Experience is not romantic but bodily, sexual
• Memory: For romantics is everything, but here is connected to logic and reason
• Morality: Sun demolishes clay = experience leads to undoing of soul
• Every poet should write for themselves and only continue if public likes
• Intrusive narrator interjects his own opinion, wants praise

Don Juan (Canto 2)
• Ideology that god is in nature, replaced with devil in the moon
• Moon marks time, not sun
• Things take place in the dark (experience). Upsets idea of god in nature and argues the devilish
• Prefers drunk overflow of emotion (bodily)
• Stuck in little ship = immobile, diseased minds
• Donna Inez sent him away from nature to restore
• Noah’s ark shipwrecked in devil of sea (God’s wrath)

Don Juan (Canto 3)
• Answers critics = mtns are my altars
• Absence of memory
• Pokes fun at elevated poet and authority of poet.

Don Juan (Canto 4)
• Dream about nature is bad
• Tries to escape with imagination but can’t
• Imagination/thinking causes brain to burst
• Muse is capricious elf (not nature)