Poetic Vocabularies

Narrative Poetry
Tells a story

Ballad
A simple narrative poem with refrain and repetition that can be spoke or sung.
1.Simple words and rhyme scheme
2. Use of Dialogue and Repetition
3. Often Divided intro Quatrains
4. Basic rhyme scheme with a Refrain – creates songlike quality
5. Anonymously written (Folk Ballads, specifically)
6. Look for Typical Rhyme Scheme – Iambic Tetrameter alternating with iambic trimeter

Dramatic Monologue
Speaker Converses with the reader as he/she reveals events
Popular example: My Last Duchess

Epic Poem
A lengthy elevated poem that celebrates that exploits of a hero
Popular Example: Beowulf

Lyric Poetry
Subjective and emotional – poems can be as simple as sensory impression or elevated as ode or elegy; often reflective. Can also be written in a free verse

ode
type of lyric poem that addresses subjects of elevated stature – praise
Popular example: Ode on a Grecian Urn

Elegy
lyric poem written in honor of one who has died
popular example: In Memoriam A.H.H.

Sonnet
lyric poem with 14 lines, each of 10 syllables, with a formal pattern of rhymes

Sonnet: Petrarchan
Also called Italian, make up of octave and sestet

Octave
2 Italian quatrains: abba abba

Sestet
1. Rhyme pattern varies, some variant on c, d, and e
2. cde cde = Italian sestet
3. cd cd cd = Sicilian sestet
4. other variants are not named
Popular example: On his being arrived..-John Milton

Shakespearean
Also called English
Contains 3 sicilian quatrains: abab cdcd efef
Ends with one heroic couplet: gg
Usually has question or issue in first quatrains, answered in bottom part
Popular example: 138-Shakespeare

Spenserian
very similar to shakespearean
contains 3 sicilian quatrains and one heroic couplet
abab bcbc cdcd
ee
interlocks each of the quadrains so their rhyme is connected
popular example: sonnet 30-spenser

Villanelle
Rhyme Scheme
A1
b
A2 (refrain)

a
b
A1 (refrain)

a
b
A2 (refrain)

a
b
A1 (refrain)

a
b
A2 (refrain)

a
b
A1
A2 (refrain)

Foot
basic building block composed of pattern of syllables
these patterns create a meter-pattern of beats or accents based on stressed and unstressed syllables in a line
five common patterns:
1. iamb (u/)
2. trochee (/u)
3. anapest (uu/)
4. dactyl (/uu)
5. spondee(//)

Lines
how many feet per line
1. Monometer
2. Dimeter
3. Trimeter
4. Tetrameter
5. Pentameter
6. Hexameter
7. Heptameter
8. Octameter
9. Nonometer

Stanza
How lines are divided
1. a line
2. couplet
3. tercet
4. quatrain
5. cinquain
6. sestet
7. septet
8. octave

Sound/structure
Syllables, foot, lines, stanzas, cantos

Poetic Devices
These are ways that author’s make things a little deeper

Imagery
Language that appeals to the senses
Visual, auditory, gustatory, tactile, olfactory, organic(internal sensation), kinesthetic(movement, tension in muscles and joints)

Denotation
dictionary definition

Connotation
emotions and ideas associated with word

Allusion
reference to something in history or literature

Irony
Discrepancy between expectation and reality

Understatement
a statement which means less than what is intended

hyperbole
a statement of exaggeration

paradox
an apparent contradiction that conveys truth

Simile
direct comparison of two unlike things useing like or as

Metaphor
comparison of two unlike things

Personification
attribution of human characteristics to a creature, idea or object

Apostrophe
direct address to an inanimate object or idea

Symbol
anything that has meaning of its own but also stands for something beyong itself

Tone
attitude revealed toward the subject

Analysis
utilize poetic devices to understand meaning and purpose
utilize poetic structure to find depth in the poem
interpret the different layers of a poem and how it can be interpreted: literally, sexually, philosophically, religiously, politically

Poetry Explication
begin with the large issues and basic design of the poem and work through each line to the more specific details and patterns. The first paragraph should present the large issues; it should inform the reader which conflicts are dramatized and should describe the dramatic situation of the speaker.
Ex: This poem dramatizes the conflict between….

Alliteration
repeated consonant sounds at the beginning of words places near each other, usually on the same or adjacent lines. The use of the same consonant in any part of adjacent words

Assonance
Repeated vowel sounds in words placed near each other, usually on the same or adjacent lines. These should be in sounds that are accented, or stressed, rather than in vowel sounds that are unaccented.

Consonance
Repeated consonant sounds at the ending of words placed near each other, usually on the same or adjacent lines. These should be in sounds that are accented, or stressed, rather than in vowel sounds that are unaccented. This produces a pleasing kind of near-rhyme
ex: boa’t’s into the pas’t’ — coo’l’ sou’l’

Cacophony
A discordant series of harsh, unpleasant sounds, helps to convey disorder. This is often furthered by the combined effect of the meaning and the difficulty of pronunciation.
Ex: My stick fingers click with a snicker
and, chuckling, they knuckle the keys;
Light-footed, my steel feelers flicker
and pluck from these keys melodies.

Euphony
A series of musically pleasant sounds, conveying a sense of harmony and beauty to the language
Ex: Than Oars divide the Ocean,
Too silver for a seam —
Or Butterflies, off Banks of Noon
Leap, plashless as they swim.

Onomatopoeia
Words that sound like their meanings. Example: boom, buzz, crackle, gurgle, hiss, pop, sizzle, snap

Repetition
The purposeful re-use of words and phrases for an effect. Sometimes, especially with longer phrases that contain a different key word each time, this is called parallelism. I was glad; so very, very glad. Half a league, half a league, half a league onward

Rhyme
Words that have different beginning sounds but whose endings sound alike, including the final vowel sound and everything following it. Ex: time, slime, mime

Double Rhyme
Includes final two syllables. Ex: arrival, survival

Triple Rhyme
Includes the final three syllables. Ex: greenery, machinery, scenery

Slant rhyme/half rhyme
If only the final consonant sounds of the words are the same, but the initial consonants and the vowel sounds are different. Ex: soul, oil, foul; taut, sat, knit

Near rhyme
If the final vowel sounds are the same, but the final consonant sounds are slightly different. Ex: fine, rhyme; poem, goin’

Sight rhyme/eye rhyme
Words which are spelled the same(as if they rhymed), but are pronounced differently. Ex: enough, cough, through, bough

Rhythm
a regular pattern of accented syllables separated by unaccented syllables.

Scansion
the conscious measure of the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry.

-/
Iamb/Iambic. Ex: Invite

/-
Trochee/Trochaic. Ex: deadline

–/
Anapest/Anapestic. Ex: to the beach

/–
Dactyl/Dactylic. Ex: frequently

//
Spondee/Spondaic. Ex: true blue

Meter
Measure by number of feet in a line

Monometer
one foot

dimeter
two feet

trimeter
three feet

tetrameter
four feet

pentameter
five feet

hexameter
six feet

heptameter
seven feet

octameter
eight feet

Allegory
A representation of an abstract or spiritual meaning. Sometimes a word or phrase.

Allusion
A brief reference to some person, historical event, work of art, or Biblical or mythological situation or character

Ambiguity
A word or phrase that can mean more than one thing, even in its context. Poets often search out such words to add richness to their work. Often, one meaning seems quite readily apparent, but other deeper and darker meanings.

Analogy
A comparison, usually something unfamiliar with something familiar

Apostrophe
Speaking directly to a real or imagined listener or inanimate object; addressing that person or thing by name.

Cliche
Any figure of speech that was once clever and original but through overuse has become outdated. If you’ve heard more than two or three other people say it more than two or three times, chances are the phrase is too timeworn to be useful in your writing

Connotation
The emotional, psychological or social overtones of a word; its implications and associations apart from its literal meaning. Often this is what distinguishes the precisely correct word from one that is merely acceptable.

Contrast
Closely arranged things with strikingly different characteristics

Denotation
The dictionary definition of a word. Its literal meaning apart from any associations or connotations.

Euphemism
An understatement, used to lessen the effect of a statement; substituting something innocuous for something that might be offensive or hurtful.

Hyberbole
An outrageous exaggeration used for effect.

Irony
A contradictory statement or situation to reveal a reality different from what appears to be true.

Metaphor
a direct comparison between two unlike things, stating that one is the other or does the action of the other.

Metonymy
A figure of speech in which a person, place, thing is referred to by something closely associated with it. Ex: The White House stated today that…

Oxymoron
A combination of two words that appear to contradict each other. Ex: a pointless point of view; bittersweet

Paradox
A statement in which a seeming contradiction may reveal an unexpected truth. Ex: The hurrier I go the behinder I get

Personificaton
Attributing human characteristics to an inanimate object, animal, or abstract idea.

Pun
Word play in which words with totally different meanings have similar or identical sounds. Ex: like a firefly in the rain, I’m de-lighted

Simile
A direct comparison of two unlike things using “like” or “as”

Symbol
An ordinary object, event, animal, or person to which we have attached extraordinary meaning and
significance

Synecdoche
Indicating a person, object, etc. by letting only a certain part represent the whole.

Point of View
The author’s point of view concentrates on the vantage point of the speaker, or “teller” of
the story or poem. This may be considered the poem’s “voice” — the pervasive presence behind the
overall work. This is also sometimes referred to as the persona.

1st Person
the speaker is a character in the story or poem and tells it from his/her
perspective (uses “I”).

3rd Person limited
the speaker is not part of the story, but tells about the other characters through the limited perceptions of one other person.

3rd Person omniscient
the speaker is not part of the story, but is able to “know” and
describe what all characters are thinking.

Line
The line is fundamental to the perception of poetry, marking an important visual distinction from
prose. Poetry is arranged into a series of units that do not necessarily correspond to sentences, but
rather to a series of metrical feet.

Verse
One single line of a poem arranged in a metrical pattern. Also, a piece of poetry or a particular form
of poetry such as free verse, blank verse, etc., or the art or work of a poet.

Stanza
: A division of a poem created by arranging the lines into a unit, often repeated in the same pattern of
meter and rhyme throughout the poem; a unit of poetic lines (a “paragraph” within the poem).

Stanza Forms
The names given to describe the number of lines in a stanzaic unit, such as: couplet (2),
tercet (3), quatrain (4), quintet (5), sestet (6), septet (7), and octave (8).

Rhetorical Question
A question solely for effect, which does not require an answer. By the implication the
answer is obvious, it is a means of achieving an emphasis stronger than a direct statement.

Rhyme Scheme
The pattern established by the arrangement of rhymes in a stanza or poem, generally
described by using letters of the alphabet to denote the recurrence of rhyming lines, such as the
ababbcc of the Rhyme Royal stanza form.

alternate rhyme/cross rhyme
the popular rhyme scheme of abab

envelope rhyme
The abba rhyme scheme, xaxa

Enjambment
The continuation of the logical sense — and therefore the grammatical construction —
beyond the end of a line of poetry. This is sometimes done with the title, which in effect becomes the
first line of the poem.

Form
The arrangement or method used to convey the content, such as free verse, ballad, haiku, etc. In
other words, the “way-it-is-said.”

Open
poetic form free from regularity and consistency in elements such as rhyme, line length,
and metrical form

Closed
poetic form subject to a fixed structure and pattern

Blank Verse
unrhymed iambic pentameter (much of the plays of Shakespeare are written in
this form)

Free Verse
: lines with no prescribed pattern or structure — the poet determines all the variables as seems appropriate for each poem

Couplet
a pair of lines, usually rhymed; this is the shortest stanza

Heroic Couplet
a pair of rhymed lines in iambic pentameter (traditional heroic epic form)

Quatrain
a four-line stanza, or a grouping of four lines of verse

Fixed Form
A poem which follows a set pattern of meter, rhyme scheme, stanza form, and refrain (if there
is one), is called a fixed form.

Ballad
a narrative poem written as a series of quatrains in which lines of iambic tetrameter
alternate with iambic trimeter with an xaxa, xbxb rhyme scheme with frequent use of repetition
and often including a refrain. The “story” of a ballad can be a wide range of subjects but
frequently deals with folklore or popular legends.

Ballade
a French form, it consists of three seven or eight-line stanzas using no more than
three recurrent rhymes, with an identical refrain after each stanza and a closing envoi repeating
the rhymes of the last four lines of the stanza

Concrete Poetry
also known as pattern poetry or shaped verse, these are poems that are
printed on the page so that they form a recognizable outline related to the subject, thus conveying or extending the meaning of the words.

Epigram
a pithy, sometimes satiric, couplet or quatrain comprising a single thought or event
and often aphoristic with a witty or humorous turn of thought

Epitaph
a brief poem or statement in memory of someone who is deceased, used as, or
suitable for, a tombstone inscription; now, often witty or humorous and written without intent
of actual funerary use

Haiku
a Japanese form of poetry consisting of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five
syllables.

Limerick
a light or humorous form of five chiefly anapestic verses of which lines one, two
and five are of three feet and lines three and four are of two feet, with a rhyme scheme of
aabba.

Lyric
derived from the Greek word for lyre, lyric poetry was originally designed to be sung. One
of the three main groups of poetry (the others being narrative and dramatic), lyric verse is the most
frequently used modern form, including all poems in which the speaker’s ardent expression of a
(usually single) emotional element predominates.

Ode
any of several stanzaic forms more complex than the lyric, with intricate rhyme schemes and
irregular number of lines, generally of considerable length, always written in a style marked by a
rich, intense expression of an elevated thought praising a person or object.

Pantoum
derived from the Malayan pantun, it consists of a varying number of four-line stanzas
with lines rhyming alternately; the second and fourth lines of each stanza repeated to form the first
and third lines of the succeeding stanza, with the first and third lines of the first stanza forming the
second and fourth of the last stanza, but in reverse order, so that the opening and closing lines of
the poem are identical.

Rondeau
a fixed form used mostly in light or witty verse, usually consisting of fifteen octo- or
decasyllabic lines in three stanzas, with only two rhymes used throughout. A word or words from
the first part of the first line are used as a (usually unrhymed) refrain ending the second and third
stanzas, so the rhyme scheme is aabba aabR aabbaR.

Sestina
a fixed form consisting of six 6-line (usually unrhymed) stanzas in which the end words
of the first stanza recur as end words of the following five stanzas in a successively rotating order,
and as the middle and end words of each of the lines of a concluding envoi in the form of a tercet.
First stanza, 1- 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6
Second stanza, 6 – 1 – 5 – 2 – 4 – 3
Third stanza, 3 – 6 – 4 – 1 – 2 – 5
Fourth stanza, 5 – 3 – 2 – 6 – 1 – 4
Fifth stanza, 4 – 5 – 1 – 3 – 6 – 2
Sixth stanza, 2 – 4 – 6 – 5 – 3 – 1
Concluding tercet:
middle of first line – 2, end of first line – 5
middle of second line – 4, end of second line – 3
middle if third line – 6, end of third line – 1

Sonnet
a fourteen line poem in iambic pentameter with a prescribed rhyme scheme; its subject
was traditionally love. Three variations are found frequently in English, although others are
occasionally seen.

Shakespearean Sonnet
a style of sonnet used by Shakespeare with a rhyme scheme of abab
cdcd efef gg

Italian (Petrarchan) Sonnet
a form of sonnet made popular by Petrarch with a rhyme scheme of
abbaabba cdecde or cdcdcd

Spenserian Sonnet
a variant of the Shakespearean form in which the quatrains are linked with a
chain or interlocked rhyme scheme, abab bcbc cdcd ee

Sonnet Sequence
a series of sonnets in which there is a discernable unifying theme, while each
retains its own structural independence. All of Shakespeare’s sonnets, for example, were part of a
sequence.

Triolet
a poem or stanza of eight lines in which the first line is repeated as the fourth and seventh
lines, and the second line as the eighth, with a rhyme scheme of ABaAabAB, as in Adelaide
Crapsey’s “Song” (the capital letters in the rhyme scheme indicate the repetition of identical lines).

Villanelle
a poem consisting of five 3-line stanzas followed by a quatrain and having only
two rhymes. In the stanzas following the first stanza, the first and third lines of the first stanza
are repeated alternately as refrains. They are the final two lines of the concluding quatrain.

Imagery
The use of vivid language to generate ideas and/or evoke mental images, not only of the visual
sense, but of sensation and emotion as well.

Synesthesia
An attempt to fuse different senses by describing one kind of sense impression in words
normally used to describe another.
Example: The sound of her voice was sweet

Tone, Mood
The means by which a poet reveals attitudes and feelings, in the style of language or expression of thought used to develop the subject.