poetry def.

is the repetition of initial consonant sounds.

EX: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers

is a direct or indirect reference to a familiar figure, place or event from history, literature, mythology or the Bible.EX: Your backyard is a GARDEN OF EDEN

a figure of speech in which a person not present is addressed.EX: Car, please get me to work today.

is a close repetition of similar vowel sounds, usually in stressed syllables.EX: Go slow over the road.

(repetition of the long o sound)

is the prevailing feeling that is created in a story or poem.EX: dark and stormy night

Harsh sounds introduced for poetic effect – sometimes words that are difficult to pronounce.EX:”Beware the Jabberwock, my son! The jaws that bite, the claws that catch! Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun The frumious Bandersnatch!

an overused expression that has lost its intended force or novelty.EX: Raining cats and dogs

the emotional suggestions attached to words beyond their strict definitions.EX: Chicken-while this literally refers to an animal, it is a term used to describe someone who is a coward.

the close repetition of identical consonant sounds before and after different vowels.EX: Pitter Patter, Pitter Patter-repetition of the “t,” and “r” sounds.

the comparison or juxtaposition of things that are differentEX: Thomas Jefferson was a man of contrasts: he wrote beautifully about freedom and equality, yet he owned slaves

the dictionary meaning of wordsEX: Gay-literally means “lighthearted and carefree.” Only more recently has it come to be a reference for homosexuality.

the juxtaposition of harsh jarring sounds in one or more linesEX:
agreeable sounds that are easy to articulateEX:Passed away = dead

extended metaphor
an implied comparison between two things which are essentially not alike. These points of comparison are continued throughout the selectionEX:All the world’s a stage and all the men and women merely players. One man in his time plays may parts.

figurative language
Language used in such a way as to force words out of their literal meanings by emphasizing their connotations to bring new insight and feeling to the subject.

EX:Love is a red rose

an exaggeration in the service of truth – an overstatement.EX:My father drives 1,000 miles per hour!

is a term or phrase that cannot be understood by a literal translation, but refers instead to a figurative meaning that is understood through common use.EX:It’s raining cats and dogs.

is the representation through language of sense experience. The image most often suggests a mental picture, but an image may also represent a sound, smell, taste or tactile experience.EX:Glittering white, the blanket of snow covered everything in sight

is a literary device which reveals concealed or contradictory meanings.EX:Mom says, “Wow, you could win an award for cleanliness!

language peculiar to a particular trade, profession or group.

EX: need a script in order to pick up the medicine. (medical jargon for “prescription”

is the overlapping or mixing of opposite or different situations, characters, settings, moods, or points of view in order to clarify meaning, purpose, or character, or to heighten certain moods, especially humour, horror, and suspense. also ContrastEX:Two siblings in a story are opposites-one is always good and one is always evil

literal language
what is said is based in reality without the comparisons used in figurative language.EX:
a form of understatement in which something is said by denying the oppositeEX:You won’t be sorry!

a comparison between two things which are essentially dissimilar. The comparison is implied rather than directly statedEX:This pie is heaven!

any regular pattern of rhythm based on stressed and unstressed syllables.EX:Come live / with me / and be / my love

use of a closely related idea for the idea itselfEX:Suit = business man

see atmosphereEX:I WANT a chocolate ice cream cone

the use of words which sound like what they meanEX: Buzz-The bee buzzed in my ear.

two words placed close together which are contradictory, yet have truth in them.EX: wakeful sleep

a statement in which there is an apparent contradiction which is actually trueEX:jumbo shrimp

giving human attributes to an animal, object or ideaEX:The grease jumped out of the pan

words that sound alikeEX:Little Boy Blue, come blow your horn. The sheep’s in the meadow, the cow’s in the corn

rhyme scheme
any pattern of rhymes in poetry. Each new sound is assigned the next letter in the alphabet.

EX:The people along the sand (A) All turn and look one way. (B) They turn their back on the land. (A) They look at the sea all day. (B)

a series of stressed or accented syllables in a group of words, arranged so that the reader expects a similar series to follow.

EX:Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene, From ancient grudge break to new mutiny,

a comparison between two things which are essentially dissimilar. The comparison is directly stated through words such as like, as, than or resembles.EX:He eats like a pig

the “voice” which seems to be telling the poem.

Not the same as the poet; this is like a narratorEX:Falling leaves and yellow woods are metaphors for the speaker’s life, showing the downfall of his life.

a symbol has two levels of meaning, a literal level and a figurative level. Characters, objects, events and settings can all be symbolic in that they represent something else beyond themselves.EX:Hearts-love

the use of a part for the whole ideaEX:Referring to a car as “wheels”

is the central idea of the story, usually implied rather than directly stated. It is the writer’s idea abut life and can be implied or directly stated through the voice of the speaker.

It should not be confused with moral or plotEX:Crime and mystery are utilized in detective novels.

is the poet’s attitude toward his/her subject or readers. it is similar to tone of voice but should not be confused with mood or atmosphere. An author’s tone might be sarcastic, sincere, humourous .

. .EX:Father: “We are going on a vacation.”Son: “That’s great!!!”

a figure of speech in which a word is used outside its literal meaning. Simile and metaphor are the two most common tropesEX:Some of its types include ,irony, hyperbole, metaphor, allegory, litotes, pun, personification, simile, metonymy, and synecdoche

this is saying less than what you mean in the service of truthEX:After wrecking your car: “There’s a little scratch.”

the creating and artistic intelligence that we recognize behind any speakerEX:Alyssa drank the last bottle of water

Oral Tradition
by word of mouth; spoken rather than written

of or characteristic of the metaphysical poets

relating to ancient Greek or Latin literature, art, or culture.

a movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual.

a believer in or supporter of modernism, especially in the arts.

the area around a fireplace (used especially with reference to a person’s home or family life).

Harlem Renaissance
cultural, social, and artistic explosion that took place in Harlem, New York

Beat Generation
literary movement started by a group of authors

New Formalism
late 20th- and early 21st-century movement in American poetry that has promoted a return to metrical and rhymed verse

intentionally ridiculous or bizarre; surreal.

a philosophical theory or approach that emphasizes the existence of the individual person as a free and responsible agent determining their own development through acts of the will.

an idealistic philosophical and social movement

written in iambic pentameter and consisting of three quatrains and a final couplet with the rhyme scheme abab cdcd efef ggcomposed of three quatrains and a terminal couplet in iambic pentameter with the rhyme pattern abab cdcd efef gg.

devoted to the praise of a person, animal, or thing

is a short poem consisting of fifteen lines that have two rhymes throughout.

a five-line witty poem with a distinctive rhythm

a short rhyming poem with 14 lines

free verse
does not follow any rules

a poem or song narrating a story in short stanzas

This ancient form of poem writing is renowned for its small size as well as the precise punctuation and syllables needed on its three lines.