poetry def.

alliteration
is the repetition of initial consonant sounds.
EX: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers

allusion
is a direct or indirect reference to a familiar figure, place or event from history, literature, mythology or the Bible.
EX: Your backyard is a GARDEN OF EDEN

apostrophe
a figure of speech in which a person not present is addressed.
EX: Car, please get me to work today.

assonance
is a close repetition of similar vowel sounds, usually in stressed syllables.
EX: Go slow over the road. (repetition of the long o sound)

atmosphere/mood
is the prevailing feeling that is created in a story or poem.
EX: dark and stormy night

cacophony
Harsh sounds introduced for poetic effect – sometimes words that are difficult to pronounce.
EX:”Beware the Jabberwock, my son! The jaws that bite, the claws that catch! Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun The frumious Bandersnatch!

cliche
an overused expression that has lost its intended force or novelty.
EX: Raining cats and dogs

connotation
the emotional suggestions attached to words beyond their strict definitions.
EX: Chicken-while this literally refers to an animal, it is a term used to describe someone who is a coward.

consonance
the close repetition of identical consonant sounds before and after different vowels.
EX: Pitter Patter, Pitter Patter-repetition of the “t,” and “r” sounds.

contrast
the comparison or juxtaposition of things that are different
EX: Thomas Jefferson was a man of contrasts: he wrote beautifully about freedom and equality, yet he owned slaves

denotation
the dictionary meaning of words
EX: Gay-literally means “lighthearted and carefree.” Only more recently has it come to be a reference for homosexuality.

dissonance
the juxtaposition of harsh jarring sounds in one or more lines
EX:
dissonance

euphony
agreeable sounds that are easy to articulate
EX:Passed away = dead

extended metaphor
an implied comparison between two things which are essentially not alike. These points of comparison are continued throughout the selection
EX:All the world’s a stage and all the men and women merely players. One man in his time plays may parts.

figurative language
Language used in such a way as to force words out of their literal meanings by emphasizing their connotations to bring new insight and feeling to the subject.
EX:Love is a red rose

hyperbole
an exaggeration in the service of truth – an overstatement.
EX:My father drives 1,000 miles per hour!

idiom
is a term or phrase that cannot be understood by a literal translation, but refers instead to a figurative meaning that is understood through common use.
EX:It’s raining cats and dogs.

imagery
is the representation through language of sense experience. The image most often suggests a mental picture, but an image may also represent a sound, smell, taste or tactile experience.
EX:Glittering white, the blanket of snow covered everything in sight

irony
is a literary device which reveals concealed or contradictory meanings.
EX:Mom says, “Wow, you could win an award for cleanliness!

jargon
language peculiar to a particular trade, profession or group.
EX: need a script in order to pick up the medicine. (medical jargon for “prescription”

juxtaposition
is the overlapping or mixing of opposite or different situations, characters, settings, moods, or points of view in order to clarify meaning, purpose, or character, or to heighten certain moods, especially humour, horror, and suspense. also Contrast
EX:Two siblings in a story are opposites-one is always good and one is always evil

literal language
what is said is based in reality without the comparisons used in figurative language.
EX:
literal language

litotes
a form of understatement in which something is said by denying the opposite
EX:You won’t be sorry!

metaphor
a comparison between two things which are essentially dissimilar. The comparison is implied rather than directly stated
EX:This pie is heaven!

meter
any regular pattern of rhythm based on stressed and unstressed syllables.
EX:Come live / with me / and be / my love

metonymy
use of a closely related idea for the idea itself
EX:Suit = business man

mood
see atmosphere
EX:I WANT a chocolate ice cream cone

onomatopoeia
the use of words which sound like what they mean
EX: Buzz-The bee buzzed in my ear.

oxymoron
two words placed close together which are contradictory, yet have truth in them.
EX: wakeful sleep

paradox
a statement in which there is an apparent contradiction which is actually true
EX:jumbo shrimp

personification
giving human attributes to an animal, object or idea
EX:The grease jumped out of the pan

rhyme
words that sound alike
EX:Little Boy Blue, come blow your horn. The sheep’s in the meadow, the cow’s in the corn

rhyme scheme
any pattern of rhymes in poetry. Each new sound is assigned the next letter in the alphabet.
EX:The people along the sand (A) All turn and look one way. (B) They turn their back on the land. (A) They look at the sea all day. (B)

rhythm
a series of stressed or accented syllables in a group of words, arranged so that the reader expects a similar series to follow.
EX:Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene, From ancient grudge break to new mutiny,

simile
a comparison between two things which are essentially dissimilar. The comparison is directly stated through words such as like, as, than or resembles.
EX:He eats like a pig

speaker
the “voice” which seems to be telling the poem. Not the same as the poet; this is like a narrator
EX:Falling leaves and yellow woods are metaphors for the speaker’s life, showing the downfall of his life.

symbol
a symbol has two levels of meaning, a literal level and a figurative level. Characters, objects, events and settings can all be symbolic in that they represent something else beyond themselves.
EX:Hearts-love

synecdoche
the use of a part for the whole idea
EX:Referring to a car as “wheels”

theme
is the central idea of the story, usually implied rather than directly stated. It is the writer’s idea abut life and can be implied or directly stated through the voice of the speaker. It should not be confused with moral or plot
EX:Crime and mystery are utilized in detective novels.

tone
is the poet’s attitude toward his/her subject or readers. it is similar to tone of voice but should not be confused with mood or atmosphere. An author’s tone might be sarcastic, sincere, humourous . . .
EX:Father: “We are going on a vacation.”
Son: “That’s great!!!”

trope
a figure of speech in which a word is used outside its literal meaning. Simile and metaphor are the two most common tropes
EX:Some of its types include ,irony, hyperbole, metaphor, allegory, litotes, pun, personification, simile, metonymy, and synecdoche

understatement
this is saying less than what you mean in the service of truth
EX:After wrecking your car: “There’s a little scratch.”

voice
the creating and artistic intelligence that we recognize behind any speaker
EX:Alyssa drank the last bottle of water

Oral Tradition
by word of mouth; spoken rather than written

Metaphysical
of or characteristic of the metaphysical poets

Classical
relating to ancient Greek or Latin literature, art, or culture.

romanticism
a movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual.

modernists
a believer in or supporter of modernism, especially in the arts.

fireside
the area around a fireplace (used especially with reference to a person’s home or family life).

Harlem Renaissance
cultural, social, and artistic explosion that took place in Harlem, New York

Beat Generation
literary movement started by a group of authors

New Formalism
late 20th- and early 21st-century movement in American poetry that has promoted a return to metrical and rhymed verse

Absurdist
intentionally ridiculous or bizarre; surreal.

existentialism
a philosophical theory or approach that emphasizes the existence of the individual person as a free and responsible agent determining their own development through acts of the will.

transcendentalism
an idealistic philosophical and social movement

elizabethan/shakespearean
written in iambic pentameter and consisting of three quatrains and a final couplet with the rhyme scheme abab cdcd efef gg

composed of three quatrains and a terminal couplet in iambic pentameter with the rhyme pattern abab cdcd efef gg.

ode
devoted to the praise of a person, animal, or thing

rondeau
is a short poem consisting of fifteen lines that have two rhymes throughout.

limerick
a five-line witty poem with a distinctive rhythm

sonnet
a short rhyming poem with 14 lines

free verse
does not follow any rules

ballad
a poem or song narrating a story in short stanzas

haiku
This ancient form of poem writing is renowned for its small size as well as the precise punctuation and syllables needed on its three lines.