Poetry Final Review

Epic Poetry
an extensive narrative regarding a significant event, usually including a store about a hero or a group of people

Time period of Epic Poetry
800 BC during heroic era (ancient Greece and Rome)

Homer (Epic Poetry)
Greek poet who created the form of the basic epic poem, including its characters, tropes and its plot. Pretty much every known epic poet was influenced by his writings. He wrote The Iliad and The Odyssey, perhaps two of the most well-known epic poems. Each were written under influences of the Trojan War and Greek mythology.

Virgil (Epic Poetry)
wrote The Aeneid, which includes a character from Homer’s poem The Iliad. The character finds Rome after leaving his home in Troy. Medieval and Renaissance poets were extremely influenced by his works. Milton wrote his poem, Paradise Lost, after reading Virgil’s The Aeneid.

Dante
his greatest epic is The Divine Comedy which is a story about his journey through the 3 realms of the dead, with the help of Virgil and the woman he is in love with, Beatrice.

Metaphysical Poetry
highly intellectualized poetry marked by bold and ingenious conceits, incongruous imagery, complexity and subtlety of thought, frequent use of paradox, and often by deliberate harshness or rigidity of expression; religious sentiment

Time Period of Metaphysical Poetry
began in 17th Century by John Donne. Highly influenced by the English Civil War (1642-1651)

John Donne (metaphysical)
His personal relationship with religion was tumultuous and passionate, and at the center of much of his poetry. He was best known for his vivacious, compelling style and thorough examination of mortal paradox

George Herbert (metaphysical)
His characteristic gestures tend to be careful self-scrutiny rather than rhetorical pronouncement. They included local involvement rather than broad social engagement; and complex, ever-qualified lyric contemplation rather than epic or dramatic mythmaking

Henry Vaughan (metaphysical)
He was known for his remarkable spiritual intuitions. Even though he borrowed phrase from Herbert and other writers and wrote poems with the same titles as Herbert’s, he was still considered one of the most original poets of his time.

Andrew Marvell (metaphysical)
his satires won him a reputation as a patriotic political writer—a clever and courageous enemy of court corruption and a defender of religious and political liberty and the rights of Parliament.

Richard Crashaw (metaphysical)
He used conceits to draw analogies between the physical beauties of nature and the spiritual significance of existence. Crashaw’s verse is marked by loose trains of association, sensuous imagery, and eager religious emotion

18th Century British Satire
A Literary Composition, in verse or prose, in which human folly and vice are held up to scorn, derision, or ridicule

Time period 18th Century British Satire
18th century; church and state tightly intertwined

Characteristics of 18th Century British Sature
-Mocked Upper Class & Corruption in Society
-Pointed out the Shortcomings of Society through Ridiculing the Accepted Standards of Thought
-Exposed Britain’s Flaws
-Criticized the hypocrisy of the Era
-Expressed Dissatisfaction with Society
-Prose Forms Blended Fact & Fiction, such as News, Criminal Biographies, Travelogues, Political Allegories & Romantic Tales

Jonathon Swift (British satire)
Best known for Gulliver’s Travels & A Modest Proposal

Alexander Pope (British satire)
Best known for The Rape of the Lock & The Essay on Man; mocked upper class

Richard Steele
Best known for series of essays in the Tattler and the Spectator written with Addison

British Romanticism
A movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual.

Time period of British Romanticism
Began early in the 17th century and continued into late 18th

Characteristics of British Romanticism
• Romanticism was largely influenced upon the ideals against the Enlightenment period.
• Most Romantics loved the medieval age and disliked urban life.
• Many focused on supernatural and loved nature.
• In many works main characters were centered on ordinary people.

William Blake (British Romanticism)
• Printed his poems on illuminated plates.
• The Bible had a large impact on a lot of his works.
• His brother Robert died at age 24 from tuberculosis.

William Wordsworth (British Romanticism)
• Wordsworth is one of the domineering figures of British Romanticism
• Was a part of a group referred to as “The Lake Poets”
• Published a collection of poems called the lyrical ballads.
• Manifesto of romantic ideology.

Lord Byron (British Romanticism)
• Was on of the few British Romantic writers to achieve widespread fame during his lifetime
• Was good friends with Percy Shelley however was disliked by Wordsworth.
• His contribution to the period comes in the form of the Byronic Hero.

Time Period of High Modernism
WW1, WW2, and Great Depression

High Modernism Poetry
no distinctive style, didn’t rely on anyone, breaking from social norms, people thinking for themselves

Characteristics of High Modernism
Radical experimentation in literary form and expression
Breaks with Victorian Era traditions
No absolute truth
Celebration of inner strength and championship of the individual
Concern with the sub-conscious

People of High Modernism Poetry Era
F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Langston Hughes, William Faulkner, Virginia Woolf, and T.S. Eliot

Time Period of Harlem Renaissance Poetry
after WW1 until 1930s; racism and prejudice; the great migration

Influential Figures of Harlem Renaissance
Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, Zora Neale Hurston, Arna Bontemps

Time Period of American Transcendentalism
1836-60

German Influence (American Transcendentali
• Immanuel Kant influenced Ralph Waldo Emerson
• Differentiates between transcendental and transcendent
• Beauty of world, God, and morality

Ralph Waldo Emerson (American Transcendentalism)
• Leader of Transcendental Movement and Club
• Published major work Nature
• Big Abolitionist

Henry David Thoreau (American Transcendentalism)
• Wrote Walden, a reflection of his time living near a pond
• Strong critic of Mexican American War, wrote Resistance to Civil Government
• Supported John Brown’s attack on Harper’s Ferry in A Plea for Captain John Brown

Margaret Fuller (American Transcendentalism)
• Editor of Transcendental journal, The Dial
• Women’s Rights Activist
• Her book Woman in the Nineteenth Century is considered the first major feminist work in the United States.

Time Period of American Gothicism
1820-60; war of 1812 (switch from agrarian to industrial)

Edgar Allan Poe (American Gothicism)
o Considered architect of short stories
o Reoccurring theme of lost love, death, or madness
o One of first Americans to become prominent person in literature
o Characters are typically dominated by emotions
o Wrote: The Raven, Alone, Spirits of the Dead

Nathaniel Hawthorne (American Gothicism)
o Reflected on humanity
o Works often reflect Puritan heritage
o Focuses on inevitability of self-destruction
o Wrote: Scarlet Letter, Go To The Grave, The Ocean

Herman Melville (American Gothicism)
o Often wrote of man’s cruelty, blind devotion, and defiance
o Reoccurring themes of madness, mystery, and triumph of evil
o Wrote Moby Dick, America, Gettysburg
o Civil War made impression on Melville and is basis for his writing style

Characteristics of American Gothicism
death, triumph of evil over good, loss, fear and anxiety, madness, supernatural events, mystery and skepticism, guilt and torment

Absurdist Drama poetry
uses the abandonment of conventional dramatic form to portray the futility of human struggle in a senseless world.

Characteristics of Absurdist Poetry
meaninglessness, absurdity of situations, futility, impermanence of values, illusion, abstract and not purposeful

Time period of Absurdist Drama
1942-60s; rooted from avant-garde; during and after WWII

Samuel Beckett (absurdist)
• Suffered from depression- Influenced by his Jungian Psychotherapy
• Lived in France & part of the French resistance
• Most well known work: Waiting for Godot
• Anti-novels post Waiting for Godot

Eugene Ionseco (absurdist)
• Came to playwright by chance
• 1st play: The Bald Soprano; 1st English play: Rhinoceros
• Antiplays
• Themes in work : Isolation of individual and inevitability of death

Arthur Adamov (absurdist)
• Suffered a nervous breakdown
• Autobiography: L’Aveu; 1st play: La Parodie
• Themes in work: alienation, helplessness and illusion

Jean Genet (absurdist)
• In and out of prison
• 1st novel: Our Lady of the Flowers; Poem: The Man Sentenced to Death
• Themes in work: Criminals, homosexuality, and alienation

British Aestheticism
the introduction of principles that emphasized art in the production of all sorts of industries

Time Period of British Aestheticism
1860-1900; “art for art’s sake”

Fin de siele (British Aestheticism)
“end of the century” refers to the closing of an era and implies the beginning of a new one

What the Aesthetic movement did
denounced the sober morality and middle-class values that characterized the Victorian Age and embraced the beauty as the chief pursuit of both art and life; Art should not be interpreted as historical evidence but appreciated for its own independent history and progress

Greeks
Aesthetic movement based off of pagan __

Hedonism (Aestheticism)
the pursuit of please and beauty

Oscar Wilde (Aestheticism)
The Picture of Dorian Gray; homoertoic

Walter Pater (Aestheticism)
wrote the Renaissance: Studies in Art and Poetry

Charles Baudelaire (Aestheticism)
French poet who equated life to art

Aubrey Beardsley (Aestheticism)
grotesque erotica; thought to be in homosexual clique; died of TB

Time period of Victorial Novel
1837-1901; after Romantic Period (Irish Potato Famine, Transatlantic cable, The Great Exhibition)

Charles Dickens (Victorian Novel)
worked because his father was in prison and he later wrote Great Expectations

The Bronte Sisters (Victorian Novel)
Their most famous work was Jane Eyre. The sisters wrote under 3 boys names in order to disguise that they were female.

Characteristics of Victorian Novel
change and upheaval, industrialism, idealism and influence of science and evolution, truth, justice, love, brotherhood

Characteristics of Early Renaissance Drama
rhetoric, verbal persuasion, self-dramatization, parallels, breakdown of classical order and structure

Time Period of Early Renaissance Drama
1562-1642

Figures in Early Renaissance Drama
Niccolo Machiavelli, Nicolaus Copernicus, Galilei, Martin Luther, Shakespeare, Chris Marlowe, Ben Jonson