Poetry—Forms and Rhymes (Good One;))

Heteromerous Rhyme
Also called mosaic, multiple rhyme in which one word is forced into a rhyme with two or more words. These are usually outlandish and comic, as in “But – Oh! Ye lords of ladies intellectual, / Inform us truly, have they not hen-pecked you all?”

Feminine Rhyme
A rhyme in which the rhyming stressed syllables are followed by an undifferentiated identical unstressed syllable, as waken and forsaken. Also called double rhyme.

Masculine Rhyme
Rhyme that falls on the stressed, concluding syllables of the rhyme words. “mount” and “fount” are an example.

Leonine Rhyme
The internal rhyming of the last stressed syllable before the caesura with the last stressed syllable of the line.
Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary.

Sonnet
A poem almost invariably of fourteen lines and following one of several set rhyme schemes.

Ode
A single, unified strain of exalted lyrical verse, directed to a single purpose, and dealing with one theme. The term connotes certain qualities of both manner and form. In form, it is more complicated than most lyric types. One useful distinction of form is the division into strophe, antistrophe, and epode.

Pastoral
A poem treating of shepherds and rustic life. The Greek existed in three forms: the dialogue or singing-match usually between two shepherds, often called the eclogue; the monologue, often the plaint of a lovesick or forlorn lover or a poem praising some personage; and the elegy or lament for a dead friend.

Roundeau
A set French verse pattern, artificial but very popular with many English poets. It consists characteristically of fifteen lines, the ninth and fifteenth being a short refrain. Only two rhymes (exclusive of the refrain) are allowed, the rhyme scheme running aabba aabc aabbac. The c-rhyme represents the refrain.

Ghazal
A set French verse pattern, artificial but very popular with many English poets. It consists characteristically of fifteen lines, the ninth and fifteenth being a short refrain. Only two rhymes (exclusive of the refrain) are allowed, the rhyme scheme running aabba aabc aabbac. The c-rhyme represents the refrain.

Slant Rhyme
usually the substitution of assonance or consonance for true rhyme

Villanelle
A fixed nineteen-line form, originally French, employing only two rhymes and repeating two of the lines according to a set pattern. The scheme of rhymes and repetitions is abá aba abá aba abá abaá. It first appeared in English verse, in the second half of the nineteenth century (mid to late 1800s), originally for fairly lighthearted poems

Ballade
One of the most popular of the artificial French verse forms. The form has been rather liberally interpreted. Early usage most frequently demanded three stanzas and an envoy, though the number of lines per stanza and of syllables per line varied. Stanzas of varied length have been used but the commonest is eight lines rhyming ababbcbc, with bcb for the envoy.

Pararhyme
Another name for slant rhyme

Madrigal
A short lyric, dating back to the Elizabethan Age, usually dealing with love or a pastoral theme and designed or suitable for a musical setting with a modern example of “Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas”

Light Ending
A feminine ending.

An extrametrical unstressed syllable added to the end of a line in iambic or anapestic rhythm. This variation, which may give a sense of movement and irregularity is commonly used in blank verse.

Glee
A poem written as though to be sung by a group. A musical composition for unaccompanied solo male voices, usually a setting of a light or patriotic poem.

Pyrrhic
A foot of two unaccented syllables.
As an occasional phenomenon the foot is unavoidable in English, but it is virtually inconceivable that a whole poem could be written in the foot.

Alcaics
Verses written according to the manner of the odes of ______, usually a four-stanza peom, each stanza composed of four lines, the first two being hendecasyllabic, the third being nine syllables, and the fourth decasyllabic. Because the classical pattern is based on quantitative dactyls and trochees, exact English verse form is practically impossible.

Proparoxytone
Having an acute accent on the antepenultimate syllable, that is, that before the next-to-last

Chanson
A song. Originally composed of two-line stanza of equal length, each stanza ending in a refrain it is now more broadly interpreted to include almost any simple poem intended to be sung.

Spondee
A rare form in English, the foot composed of two accented syllables

Choriambus
A foot in which two accented syllables flank two unaccented syllables: ` – – `

Amphibrach
A metrical foot consisting of three syllables, the first and last unaccented, the second accented. An example is ar range ment

Ionic
A classical foot with two long and two short syllables. It is used by Horace in his Odes. When it is occasionally attempted in English, stressed syllables are used for the long ones and unstressed for short.

Bacchius
A three-syllable foot usually defined quantitatively as a short followed by two longs or a qualitatively as a weak followed by two strongs. Applicable mostly to writing in classical antiquity and to Latin more than Greek; it hasn’t been transferred in English.

Choliambus
The most important variety of scazon because it has to do with the iambic rhythm that is the most important in English. There are subtle refinement in the use of this by the ancients; in English all that matters it that the last foot is prevalently iambic and the line not a iamb, anapest, amphibrach, or spondee but a trochee or dacytl

Sesquipedalian
A style that seems unnecessarily pretentious and polysyllabic, literally “a foot and a half”

Antibaccius
A metrical foot of three syllables, of which the first two are stressed ant the third unstressed.
Climb down the / high mountains

Amphimacer
A metrical foot consisting of three syllables, the first and last accented, the second unaccented. An example is nevermore

Lai
A song or short narrative poem. The word has been applied to several different forms in French and English literature.

Catalexis
Incompleteness of the last foot of the line; truncation by omission of an initial unstressed syllable; the resulting line is called headless.

Kyrielle
A rare French form, usually composed of short rhymed couplets with a word or larger verbal group repeated as a refrain.

Melic Poetry
Poetry written to be accompanied by the lyre or flute. It was to this poetry that the Alexandrians applied the term lyric. It flourished in Greece between the seventh and fifth centuries.

Acephalous
A line from which an unstressed syllable has been dropped at the beginning

Twiner
A sort of double limerick devised by Walter de la Mare.

Clerihew
A form of light verse. In its proper form, it concerns an actual person, whose name makes up the first line of a quatrain with a strict aabb rhyme scheme and no regularity of rhythm or meter.

Filidh
Early Irish professional poets. They were ranked partly by the extent of their repertory of ales, the highest class being able to recite 350 separate stories. These stories were divided into numerous classes such as cattle raids, wooings, battles, deaths, etc.

Skald
An ancient Scandinavian poet, especially of the Viking period.

Scop
An Anglo-Saxon court poet. Though the _____ probably traveled from court to court like a gleeman, he occupied a position of importance in the King’s retinue.

Pantoum
May consist of any number of four-line stanzas, but in any case the second and fourth lines of one stanza must reappear as the first and third lines of the following stanza. The stanzas are quatrains rhyming abab. In the final stanza the first and third lines recur in reverse order so the poem ends with the line it began with.

Vers de societe
Brief lyrical verse in a genial, sportive mood and sophisticated in both subject and treatment. Sometimes called light verse. Its characteristics are polish, savior, faire, grace, and ease. It usually presents aspects of conventional and social relationships.

Epideictic Poetry
Poetry written for special occasions, primarily for the pleasure and edification of its audience. Common types are the encomium and the epithalamium

Repetend
A device marked by full or partial repetition of a word, phrase, or clause more or less frequently through a poem. It differs from refrain in that refrain usually appears at predetermined places within the poem, whereas the chief merit of _______ is the surprise it brings through its irregular appearance. A further difference lies in the fact that the _________ only partially repeats, whereas the refrain usually repeats in its entirety a whole line or combination of lines.

Epanaphora
Repetition of words at the the beginnings of lines or sentences; commonly called anaphora.

Epanelepsis
The repetition at the end of a clause of a word or phrase that occurred at its beginning as in Shakespeare’s line from King John (2,1):
Blood hath bought blood, and blows have answer’d blows:
Strength match’d with strength, and power confronted power.

Rime retournée
The relation between such syllables as “pal” and “lap,” also called amphisbaenic or boustrophedon rhyme

Broken Rhyme
The breaking of a word at the end of a line for the sake of a rhyme. The novelty and disruption of this rare device have limited its use largely to various sorts of comic verse, including satire and doggerel.

Compound Rhyme
Rhyme between primary and secondary stressed syllables, as in the pair “childhood”?”wildwood”

Aristophanic
An ancient Greek measure, usually consisting of three quantitative feet: dactyl, trochee, trochee (or spondee)
The measure, considered a variant of the Pherecratic—spondee, dactyl, spondee (or trochee)—is mentioned in Sidney’s Arcadia.

Limerick
The form of light verse that follows a definite pattern: five anapestic lines of which the first, second, and fifth, consisting of two feet, rhyme

Ottava Rima
Boccaccio originated a type of stanza which has eight lines of iambic pentameter rhyming abababcc and is called

Link Sonnet
The Spenserian sonnet ababbcbccdcdee

Rann
In Irish literature, a piece of verse, usually a stanza?specifically a quatrain

Caesura
In poetry a pause or break in a line of verse

Trochee
The poetic foot consisting of an accented followed by an unaccented syllable

Enjambement
The continuation of sense and grammatical construction of one line on to the next verse or couplet

Elegy
The genre of formal poems exhibiting a variety of methods, moods, and subjects, all of which offer a meditation on death or another solemn theme

Volta
The turn in thought?from question to answer, problem to solution?that occurs at the beginning of the sestet in the Italian sonnet or in the Shakespearean sonnet between the twelfth and thirteenth lines

Dactyl
The common English verse triple-syllable foot consisting of one accented syllable followed by two unaccented syllables

Lyric
A breif subjective poem strongly marked by imagination, melody, and emotion, and creating a single unified impression

Anapest
The common English triple-syllable foot consisting of two unaccented syllables followed by one accented syllable

Eye Rhyme
In poetry, an imperfect rhyme in which two words are spelled similarly but pronounced differently (such as move and love, bough and though, come and home, and laughter and daughter)

Blank Verse
Verse without rhyme, especially that which uses iambic pentameter

Doggerel
Comic verse composed in irregular rhythm.
Verse or words that are badly written or expressed.

Terza Rima
An arrangement of triplets, especially in iambs, that rhyme aba bcb cdc, etc.

Iambic
unstressed stressed

Amoebean Verse
The term for a pastoral verse in matched strophes or stanzas spoken alternately by two speakers

Pushkin Stanza
The literary term for fourteen tetrameter lines rhyming abab ccdd effe gg

Ballad Stanza
The stanza usually consisting of four lines rhyming abcb, with the first and third lines carrying four accents and the fourth carrying three

Priamel
A style of verse popular in ancient Greece in which a series of parallel statements act a a preamble and comes to a climatic conclusion usually a statement of praise

Heterodyne
Borrowed from electronics and used to describe a piece of verse in which the lexical units and rhythmic units do not coincide, as in the first line of Tennyson’s “Ulysses”—”It little profits that an idle king”—broken down thus into iambic: It lit/tle pro/fits that/ an id/le king (one and a half words, two halves, a half and a whole, one and a half, a half and a whole)

Inversion
The placing of a sentence element out of its normal position in order, in verse, to accommodate rhyme and meter

Country Song
The term for a poem related to country life, customarily having to do with a young love, such as “It Was a Lover and His Lass” from Shakespeare’s As You Like It

Bard
Historically, the term referring to poets who recited verses glorifying the deeds of heroes and leaders to the accompaniment of a musical instrument such as the harp

Gnomic
A Greek poem—aphoristic, moralistic,—that expresses a moral truth

Chant Royal
A french verse form which demands a dignified, heroic subject and which consists of sixty lines arranged in five stanzas of eleven lines each and an envoy of five lines

Come-all-ye
A type of song at the beginning of a refrain or moralizing conclusion is called a

Dirge
A wailing song sung at a funeral or in commemoration of death; a short lyric of lamentation.

Blason
Generally, a rationally ordered poem of praise or blame, proceeding detail by detail.

Aubade
A lyric about dawn or a morning serenade, a song of lovers parting at dawn. Originally a French form, it differs from the lamenting Provencal alba in usually being joyous.

Aube
The French word for either alba or aubade

Alba
A Provencal lament over the parting of lovers at the break of day. It has no fixed metrical form.

Epithalamium
A poem written to celebrate a wedding.

Paean
A song of praise joy. Originally restricted to odes sung by a Greek chorus in honor of Apollo. The word now means any song of joy or expression of praise.

Paeon
A foot consisting of one long or stressed syllable and three short or unstressed syllables. Although not common in English, this essentially classic foot does occasionally appear, notably in the poetry of Gerard Manley Hopkins.

Haiku
A form of Japanese poetry, usually addressing either nature or one of its elements, that states—in three lines of five, seven, and five syllables—a clear picture designed to arouse a distinct emotion and suggest a specific spiritual insight

Keen
In Fitzgerald’s This Side of Paradise, when Monsignor Darcy writes a poem called “A Lament for a Foster Son, and He Going to the War Against the King of Foreign” for Amory Blaine, who is leaving for war, he has written an Irish funeral song called a

Stanza
A recurrent grouping, or division, of two or more verse lines in terms of length, metrical form, and often, rhyme scheme (or thought)

Headless Line
A line of poetry from which an unstressed syllable has been dropped from the beginning

Complaint
A lyrical poem, a song or ballad. It is a short poem of equal stanzas and an ENVOY of fewer lines than the stanza.

Altar Poem
Same as CARMEN FIGURATUM, frequently the shape of a church alter or a cross.

Pruning Poem
A poem in which succeeding rhyme words have initial sounds or letters pared away. For example, the last words in each line might be “charm” then “harm” then “arm.”

Concrete Poetry
poetry that exploits the graphic, visual aspect of writing; a specialized application of what Aristotle called opsis (“spectacle”) and Pound “Phanopoeia.” It is a work of graphic art. Ex: “Seascape”
oceanoceanocean
oceancanoeocean
oceanoceanocean

Pattern Poem
AKA carmen figuratum

Acrostic
A poem in which the first letter of each line spells out a word, name, or phrase when read vertically. See Lewis Carroll’s “A Boat beneath a Sunny Sky.”

Acmeism
An early 20th-century Russian school of poetry that rejected the vagueness and emotionality of Symbolism in favor of Imagist clarity and texture. Its proponents included Osip Mandelstam and Anna Akhmatova.

Accentual-syllabic Verse
Verse whose meter is determined by the number and alternation of its stressed and unstressed syllables, organized into feet. From line to line, the number of stresses (accents) may vary, but the total number of syllables within each line is fixed. The majority of English poems from the Renaissance to the 19th century are written according to this metrical system.

Accentual Verse
Verse whose meter is determined by the number of stressed syllables—regardless of the total number of syllables—in each line. Many Old English poems, including Beowulf,

Alexandrine
In English, a 12-syllable iambic line adapted from French heroic verse. The last line of each stanza in Thomas Hardy’s “The Convergence of the Twain” and Percy Bysshe Shelley’s “To a Skylark”

Square Poem
Has a certain number of syllables per line and the same number of lines in a stanza. Ex: twelve lines with twelve syllables each.

Abecedarian
Related to acrostic, a poem in which the first letter of each line or stanza follows sequentially through the alphabet.

Cretic
Greek and Latin metrical foot consisting of a short syllable enclosed by two long syllables. Its use in English poetry is rare, though instances can be found in proverbs and idiomatic expressions such as “After a while, crocodile.”

Epistle
A letter in verse, usually addressed to a person close to the writer. Its themes may be moral and philosophical, or intimate and sentimental. Alexander Pope favored the form

Cubist Poetry
Poetry that attempts to do in verse what some painters do on canvas; that is, take the elements of an experience, fragment them, and arrange them in a meaningful new synthesis.

Ballad
A popular narrative song passed down orally. In the English tradition, it usually follows a form of rhymed (abcb) quatrains alternating four-stress and three-stress lines.

Carol
A hymn or poem often sung by a group, with an individual taking the changing stanzas and the group taking the burden or refrain.

Choreopoem
Combines dance and poetry so that each complements the other in a highly dramatic way.

Canto
A section or division of a long poem. Derived from the Latin for song, the word originally signified a section of a narrative poem of such length as to be sung by a minstrel in one singing.

Prelude
A short poem, introductory in character, prefixed to a long poem or to a section of a long poem.

Canzone
A lyrical poem strongly marked by imagination, melody, and emotion, and creating a single, unified impression.

Idyll
A poetic genre that is short and possesses marked descriptive, narrative, and pastoral qualities, with the point of view of a civilized and artificial society glancing from a drawing-room window over green meadows, or of the weekend farm viewed through a picture window. Ex: Tennyson’s _____ of the King.

Bucolic
A pastoral writing that deals with rural life in a manner rather formal and fanciful; simple poetry with a rustic background.

Dub
Poetry originating in Jamaica around 1975 with words improvised to a background of recorded music.

Melic Poetry
Poetry written to be accompanied by the lyre or flute.

Pastourelle
A medieval dialogue poem in which a shepherdess is wooed by a man of higher social rank.

Georgic
A poem about farming and the practical aspects of rustic life.

Senryu
Has the same form as the HAIKU – seventeen syllables arranged in lines of five, seven, and five syllables – but a different spirit, relying on humor or satire rather than conventions related to certain seasons.

Carmen Figuratum
a figure poem so written that the form of the printed words suggests the subject matter. Ex: “mOon” or “bOsOm.”

Tanka
A Japanese poem with thirty-one syllables, arranged in five lines, each of seven syllables, except the first and third, which are each of five. 57577

Meditative Poetry
certain kinds of metaphysical poetry of the 16th and 17th centuries that yoke religious thought with Renaissance poetic techniques, usually dealing with memorable moments of self-knowledge and of union with some transcendent reality.

Metaphysical Poetry
the work of the 17th century, revolting against the conventions of Elizabethan love poetry, in particular the petrarchan conceit. They used simple diction and imagery from common, rough speech. Ben Jonson thought Donne “deserved hanging” for not observing accent.

Clinamen
A trope, meaning a “swerving away,” latterly adopted in Harold Bloom’s criticism to describe the inaugural gesture of a typical “strong” post-Enlightenment lyric

Didactic Poetry
Poetry intended to teach a lesson.

Echelon
One of a group of lines printed stepwise across and down a page.