Poetry Movements

Beat Poetry – When
1940-1950 New York expanded to San Francisco

Beat Poetry – What
produced a body of written work both controversial both for its advocacy of non-conformity and for its non-conformig style.
– writers wanted to change and experiment

Beat Poetry – Who
Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs, Gregory Corso

Beat Poetry – Example
“Howl” by Allen Ginsberg

Black Arts – When
1960-1970

Black Arts – What
Africa American artists within the movement sought to create politically engaged work that explored the African American cultural and historical experience – they were looking for their own culture; came out in art

Black Arts – Who
Amiri Baraka, Gwendolyn Brooks, Eldridge Ceaver, Jayne Cortez, Harold Cruse, Mari Evans, Hoyt Fuller, Nikki Giovanni, Lorraine Hansberry

Black Arts – Example
“Mothers” by Nikki Giovanni

Malcom X
very important Black Arts Poet

Confessional Poetry – When
1950-1960s

Confessional Poetry – What
discusses intimate, and perhaps derogatory, information about him or herself, in poems about illness, sexuality, despondence, etc.
– using “I” shows they are actually talking about themselves

Confessional Poetry – Who
John Berryman, Robert Lowell, Sharon Olds, Sylvia Plath, Anne Sexton, W.D. Snodgrass

Confessional Poetry – Example
“Daddy” by Sylvia Plath

Fireside Poetry – When
1850-1900

Fireside Poetry – What
The poets in this movement preferred conventional forms over experimentation, and this attention to rhyme and strict metrical cadences made their work popular for memorization and recitation in classrooms and homes

Fireside Poetry – Who
Henry Wadworth Longfellow, John Greenleaf Whittier, Oliver Wendell Holmes, James Russell Lowell, William Cullen Byrant

Fireside Poetry – Example
“A Psalm of Life” by Henry Wadworth Longfellow

Jazz Poetry – When
20th Century

Jazz Poetry – What
poetry in which the poet responds to and writes about it; like the music itself, it encompasses a variety of forms, rhythms, and sounds
– can be seen as a thread that runs through the Harlem Renaissance, the Beat Movement, and the Black Arts Movement

Jazz Poetry – Who
Amiri Baraka, Marvin Bell, Sterling Brown, Hayden Carruth, Jayne Cortez, Michal S. Harper, Langston Hughes, Jack Kerouac, Yusef Komunyaaka, Mina Loy, Kenneth Rexroth, Sonia Sanchez

Jazz Poetry – Example
“Somewhere in Advance of Nowhere” by Jayne Cortez

Harlem Renaissance – When
decades following WWI, when a whole mass of African Americans migrated to the industrial North from the South

Harlem Renaissance – What
The major figures of the movement were enlightened by education and nourished b the folk sources such as black music and the black church; it celebrated African American culture and its singular, unique expression
– celebrated black culture

Harlem Renaissance – Who
Claude McKay, Countee Cullen, Jean (Eugene) Toomer, Sterling Brown

Langston Hughes
very important and famous poet during the Harlem Renaissance movement

Harlem Renaissance – Example
“I, too, sing America” by Langston Hughes

Metaphysical Poetry – When
17th Century – applied to English and continental European Poets

Metaphysical Poetry – What
Reproved those poets for their “unnaturalness”, or what could be considered as intricacy and originality.
– initially criticized for unnaturalness but became celebrated for its originality
– spiritual and psychological mood with logic tied in (like a paradox)
– started to break the mold of poetry

Metaphysical Poetry – Who
John donne, George Herbert, Andre Marvell, Thomas Traherne

Metaphysical Poetry – Example
“Air and Angels” by John Donne

Modernism Poetry – When
developed after WWI

Modernism Poetry – What
Poets in this moment used new forms and unlikely subjects for inspiration to create their poetry
– people are trying to show their idea and feelings on the new society (roaring 20s)
– new forms and un-likey subjects

Modernism Poetry – Who
Hart Crane, e. e. cumming, H.D. (Hilda Doolittle), T.S. Eliot, Mina Lov, Marianne Moore, Ezra Pound

Modernism Poetry – Example
“since feeling is first” by e.e. cummings

Romanticism Poetry – When
late 1700s to mid nineteenth century

Romanticism Poetry – What
cultivated individualism, reverence for the natural world, idealism, physical and emotional passion, and an interest in the mystic and supernatural. They set themselves in opposition to the order and rationality of classical and neoclassical artistic precepts to embrace freedom and revolution in their art and politics
– embraced the freedom and evolution of art

Romanticism Poetry – Who
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, John Keats, Edgar Allan Poe, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Walt Whitman, William Wordsworth

Romanticism Poetry – Example
“Lenore” by Edgar Allan Poe