definition of poetry: style
contains figures of speech, can have new grammar rules, can have rhythm, diction and syntax is concentrated and shortened
definition of poetry: structure
divided into stanzas and lines, lines can be long or short, margins can be uneven
definition of poetry: content
a comparison using ‘like’ or ‘as’ex: His forehead was as hot as the sun.
a metaphor in which both the literal and the figurative things being compared are named.ex: Life is a deck of cards.
a metaphor in which either the literal or figurative meanings are implied using word choice.ex: The noble cat battled cancer for seven years.
a metaphor – direct or implied – that is developed over more than one line of poetry
a special form of understatement; negates the opposite
using a part of something to represent the whole (ex. look at that hot blonde over there 😉 )
the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words at close intervals
The substitution of one word for another closely associated word (ex: The sword defended the kingdom.
Something (object, person, situation, or action) that means more than what it is. (ex: Pickle Dish in Ethan Frome, Gold in Silas Marner, and the Doll House in “Doll’s House.”)
a reference to a person, place or thing from previous literature
Three most common sources for literary allusions
The Bible2. Greek and Roman Mythology3. Shakespeare’s works
the similarity or likeness of sound in two or more words
sounds of words are identical
only final consonant sounds are alike
words that look like they should rhyme, but don’t
when the last word in two separate lines rhyme
when two words in one line rhyme
a pattern of end rhyme throughout a poem
the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in words in a line of poetry
the intentional arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables to occur at equal intervals of time
the process of marking and deciding the meter of a line
basic unit of meter used in scansion or measurement of verse, either consisting of 2 or 3 syllables
u /(most common foot in English language)
1 foot per line
4 feet per line
5 feet per line
6 feet per line
7 feet per line
8 feet per line
has regular meter & rhyme scheme
no regular metrical rhythm or end rhyme
has regular meter but no rhyme scheme
unrhymed iambic pentameter
the continuation of a line onto the next line or stanza (no end punctuation)
____ line stanza
Stanza over 8 lines
pauses in the middle of a line
repeating a word or phrase for emphasis
purposes of repetition
1. make it easier to remember2.
emphasize an important idea3. give the poem structural unity
Three mistaken Approaches to poetry
1. it must rhyme2.
It is always beautiful3. it always conveys a theme
a long story told in verse form; an epic is an example of a narrative poem.
a brief, personal poem that uses many sound devices, as well as rhythm and meter, and is filled with emotion; sonnets, odes and elegies are types of lyrics.
a type of poem that is actually meant to be sung and is both lyric and narrative in nature.
repetition of a vowel sound at close intervals
repetition of a consonant sound at the middle or end of words at close intervals
a comparison between two unlike things without using like, as, or than
the attributing of human characteristics to nonhumans
speaking to a nonliving thing
an exaggeration for overstatement
saying one thing but with another meaning
a strong contrast of words due to parallel structure, using the same words or phrase.
ex: Working hard or hardly working?
a seemingly contradictory statement that could actually be true. ex: Happy sadness
a word that makes the sound it represents
repetition at definite intervals of a poem
a group of consecutive lines in a poem that function similarly to paragraph in prose
lines with an end both to grammatical structure and sense at the end of the line (lines with punctuation at the end of the line)