Poetry Prose terms

definition of poetry: style
contains figures of speech, can have new grammar rules, can have rhythm, diction and syntax is concentrated and shortened

definition of poetry: structure
divided into stanzas and lines, lines can be long or short, margins can be uneven

definition of poetry: content
anything

Simile
a comparison using ‘like’ or ‘as’ex: His forehead was as hot as the sun.

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Direct Metaphor
a metaphor in which both the literal and the figurative things being compared are named.ex: Life is a deck of cards.

Implied Metaphor
a metaphor in which either the literal or figurative meanings are implied using word choice.ex: The noble cat battled cancer for seven years.

Extended metaphor
a metaphor – direct or implied – that is developed over more than one line of poetry

litotes
a special form of understatement; negates the opposite

Synecdoche
using a part of something to represent the whole (ex. look at that hot blonde over there 😉 )

Alliteration
the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words at close intervals

Metonymy
The substitution of one word for another closely associated word (ex: The sword defended the kingdom.

)

Symbol
Something (object, person, situation, or action) that means more than what it is. (ex: Pickle Dish in Ethan Frome, Gold in Silas Marner, and the Doll House in “Doll’s House.”)

Literary allusion
a reference to a person, place or thing from previous literature

Three most common sources for literary allusions
1.

The Bible2. Greek and Roman Mythology3. Shakespeare’s works

Couplet
2 line stanza

Triplet
3 line stanza

Quatrain
4 line stanza

quintet
5 line stanza

sestet
6 line stanza

Septet
7 line stanza

Octave
8 line stanza

Rhyme
the similarity or likeness of sound in two or more words

Perfect rhyme
sounds of words are identical

Imperfect rhyme
only final consonant sounds are alike

eye rhyme
words that look like they should rhyme, but don’t

end rhyme
when the last word in two separate lines rhyme

Internal rhyme
when two words in one line rhyme

rhyme scheme
a pattern of end rhyme throughout a poem

rhythm
the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in words in a line of poetry

meter
the intentional arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables to occur at equal intervals of time

scansion
the process of marking and deciding the meter of a line

foot
basic unit of meter used in scansion or measurement of verse, either consisting of 2 or 3 syllables

iambic foot
u /(most common foot in English language)

trochaic foot
/ u

spondaic foot
/ /

pyrrhic foot
u u

anapestic foot
u u /

dactylic foot
/ u u

monometer
1 foot per line

dimeter
2 feet per line

trimeter
3 feet per line

tetrameter
4 feet per line

pentameter
5 feet per line

hexameter
6 feet per line

heptameter
7 feet per line

octameter
8 feet per line

rhymed verse
has regular meter & rhyme scheme

free verse
no regular metrical rhythm or end rhyme

metrical verse
has regular meter but no rhyme scheme

blank verse
unrhymed iambic pentameter

enjambment
the continuation of a line onto the next line or stanza (no end punctuation)

____ line stanza
Stanza over 8 lines

caesura
pauses in the middle of a line

repetition
repeating a word or phrase for emphasis

purposes of repetition
1. make it easier to remember2.

emphasize an important idea3. give the poem structural unity

Three mistaken Approaches to poetry
1. it must rhyme2.

It is always beautiful3. it always conveys a theme

narrative
a long story told in verse form; an epic is an example of a narrative poem.

lyric
a brief, personal poem that uses many sound devices, as well as rhythm and meter, and is filled with emotion; sonnets, odes and elegies are types of lyrics.

ballad
a type of poem that is actually meant to be sung and is both lyric and narrative in nature.

parallelism
repeating structure

cataloguing
listing

assonance
repetition of a vowel sound at close intervals

consonance
repetition of a consonant sound at the middle or end of words at close intervals

metaphor
a comparison between two unlike things without using like, as, or than

personification
the attributing of human characteristics to nonhumans

apostrophe
speaking to a nonliving thing

hyperbole
an exaggeration for overstatement

irony
saying one thing but with another meaning

antithesis
a strong contrast of words due to parallel structure, using the same words or phrase.

ex: Working hard or hardly working?

paradox
a seemingly contradictory statement that could actually be true. ex: Happy sadness

onomatopoeia
a word that makes the sound it represents

refrain
repetition at definite intervals of a poem

stanza
a group of consecutive lines in a poem that function similarly to paragraph in prose

end stop
lines with an end both to grammatical structure and sense at the end of the line (lines with punctuation at the end of the line)