Poetry Reader 1 METER- Rhyme-Stanza

Prosody
systematic study of versification (meter, rhyme, stanza forms)

scansion
establishing feet and pauses

stress
depends on word accent in polysyllabic words, on grammatical function
(adj, verb, noun vs. article, preposition, metrical accent)

rhythm
Greek : “flow”, a term referring to a measured flow of
words and signifying the basic (though often varied) beat or pattern in language
that is established in stressed, unstressed syllables and pauses, close to speech
patterns

meter
more or less regular pattern of accented and unaccented syllables in
poetry

jamb
light – stressed

trochee
stressed-light

anapaest/anapest
light-light-stressed

dactyl
stressed-light-light

spondee
stressed-stressed

pyrrhic:
light-light

catalectic
trochee missing final unstressed or light syllable

Free verse/vers libre
lacks regular stress pattern of meter, often irregular line
length and lack of rhyme, use of repetition

Number of feet per line:
monometer
dimeter
trimeter
tetrameter
pentameter
hexameter (alexandrine)
heptameter
octameter

blank verse
unrhymed iambic pentameter

feminine rhyme
a stressed syllable is followed by one (=double rhyme,
as in shatter-splatter) or two unstressed ones (=triple
rhyme, as in clattering-flattering)

Masculine rhyme
Ending with an extra stressed syllable

internal rhymes
occur within a verse line

end rhyme
rhyme pairs (aabb)
cross rhyme/alternating rhyme (abab)
embracing rhyme/envelope rhyme (abba)
tail rhyme (aabccb)

rime riche
In______ ________, the rhyming words sound identical but have a different meaning:
their-there (=homophone)
stare-stare (=homograph, also spelled the same way)

Eye-rhymes
look like perfect rhymes but take some poetic license:
prove-love, daughter-laughter

Imperfect/slant/partial/near rhyme/para-rhyme
repetition of final consonant
in a stressed syllable, preceding vowels or consonants differ, may be followed
by a feminine ending (popular esp. in the 20
th
century):

trees-rose, rocks-wax, tomb-worm, flower-destroyer-fever

Consonance
refers to a partial or total identity of consonants in words or
syllables whose main vowels differ:

lad-lid, pressed-past
groaned-crooned-ground

stanza forms
couplet
tercet/triplet
quatrain
quintet
sestet
septet
octet

Special Stanza forms
Rime Royal: seven lines, iambic pentameter, rhyme: ababbcc
Ottava Rima: eight lines, rhyme: abababcc
Terza Rima: iambic tercets, mostly in pentameter. The rhyme scheme is aba
bcb cdc ded (etc.)

run-on line
need to pass over the end of a line because the sentence
moves on into the next verse (also called enjambment)

end-stopped line
a pause at the end of a line that agrees with a
syntactic unit

caesura:
a comma, colon or full stop indicating a pause within a line of
verse