a person, an object, an image, a word, or an event that evokes a range of additional meaning beyond and usually more abstract than its literal significance
have meanings that are widely recognized by a society or culture
can be a setting, a character, an action, an object, a name, or anything else in a work that maintains its literal significance while suggesting other meanings
a narration or description usually restricted to a single meaning because its events, actions, characters, setting, and objects represent specific abstractions or ideas.
poetry designed to teach an ethical, moral, or religious lesson
a literary device that uses contradictory statements or situations to reveal a reality different from wha appears to be true
exist when there is an incongruity between what is expected to happen and what the reader or audience member knows to be true
occurs when a person says one thing but means the opposite
the literary art of ridiculing a folly or vice in order to expose or correct it.
creates a discrepancy between what a character believes or says and wants
occurs when a writer uses God, destiny, or fate to dash the hopes and expectations of a character or of humankind in general