Poultry is an important source of animalprotein and remains as one of the most popular meat sources throughout theworld.
Different poultry production systems, ranging from backyard to intensivesystem, have been established to meet the increasing demand for animal proteins(Marangon & Busani, 2016). In recent times,globalization has led to an increase in risk of transmission of poultrydiseases. This will in turn have a major impact in poultry producing sector,and subsequently impacting the society as a whole.
Thus, other than goodmanagement practice, poultryvaccines are a key component inprevention and control of contagious diseases. Considering theimportance of poultry vaccines, vaccinationprograms have been carefullyand comprehensively constructed. However, improper vaccine applicationis considered one of the most common reasons for vaccination program failure.There are severaldelivery systems for vaccine application. Current poultry vaccination routes include oral vaccination, sprayvaccination, intramuscular vaccination, subcutaneous vaccination, intraocular vaccination,and in-ovo vaccination (Robertson & Egerton, 1981; Guy & García, 2008).However, drinking water vaccination remains as one of the easiest, quickest andmost common method of mass vaccine administration. It is not laborious, andrequires minimum handling of chicks (Bernardi & Johnson, 2011). Drinkingwater vaccination efficiency relies on the vaccinated waterconsumption by the chicks.
Inconsistencies and incomplete vaccine intake in aflock can lead to vaccination failure and post vaccine reaction. Understandingthe factors contributing to vaccine failures is vital to preserve the efficacyof currently used vaccines (Careem, 2015). Hence, the need to research iswarranted to ensure high efficiency of drinking water vaccination delivery.Ambient temperature, water restriction duration and stocking densitycan influence the consumption of vaccine intake thus affect the success ofcommercial drinking water vaccination in chicks.